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Cellular proliferation, and differentiation of cells in response to extracellular signals, are controlled by the signal transduction pathway of Ras, Raf and MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase. The mechanisms that regulate this pathway are not well known. Here we describe two structurally similar tyrosine kinase substrates, Spred-1 and Spred-2. These two(More)
The proliferation and differentiation of cells of many lineages are regulated by secreted proteins known as cytokines. Cytokines exert their biological effect through binding to cell-surface receptors that are associated with one or more members of the JAK family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Cytokine-induced receptor dimerization leads to the activation(More)
Marine animals produce astaxanthin which is a carotenoid and antioxidant. In this study we determined the in vitro and ex vivo effects of astaxanthin on LDL oxidation. The oxidation of LDL was measured in a 1 ml reaction system consisting of increasing concentrations of astaxanthin (12.5, 25.0, 50.0 microg/ml), 400 microM V-70 (2, 2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,(More)
We searched for immediate early cytokine responsive genes and isolated a novel gene, CIS (Cytokine Inducible SH2 containing protein) that is induced in hematopoietic cells by a subset of cytokines including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-3, and erythropoietin (EPO). The mutant IL-2 receptor that fails to activate STAT5 could not induce CIS, suggesting that STAT5(More)
Cytokines play a very important role in nearly all aspects of inflammation and immunity. The term 'interleukin' (IL) has been used to describe a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions - including cell proliferation, maturation, migration and adhesion. These cytokines also play an important role in immune cell differentiation and(More)
atl is a newly discovered autolysin gene in Staphylococcus aureus. The gene product, ATL, is a unique, bifunctional protein that has an amidase domain and a glucosaminidase domain. It undergoes proteolytic processing to generate two extracellular peptidoglycan hydrolases, a 59-kDa endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and a 62-kDa N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine(More)
We investigated the cell surface localization of the atl gene products of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to a lytic concentration (4 MIC) of penicillin G (PCG) by means of immunoelectron microscopy using anti-62-kDa N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase or anti-51-kDa endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase immunoglobulin G. Protein A-gold conjugates reacting with(More)
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN) was examined ultrastructurally 3 or 21 days after complete deafferentation of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) in ovariectomized adult female rats. Axodendritic shaft (SHS) and spine synapses (SPS) were counted in a field of 18,000 mu m2 in the middle part of the ARCN in each brain. The mean numbers of SHS and SPS(More)
INTRODUCTION Bodyweight loss during spaceflight has been observed among astronauts since the early space missions. Considerable mission data has been accumulated, including data from female astronauts, on the many Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between observed weight loss(More)
The analysis of co-culture system using osteoblast and bone marrow indicated that the mineralized osteoblast decreased osteoclast formation. This finding was an incentive to better investigate the relation of osteoblast development and osteoclastogenesis. The expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF/RANKL) mRNA and protein dramatically(More)