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Here, we describe a biomimetic microsystem that reconstitutes the critical functional alveolar-capillary interface of the human lung. This bioinspired microdevice reproduces complex integrated organ-level responses to bacteria and inflammatory cytokines introduced into the alveolar space. In nanotoxicology studies, this lung mimic revealed that cyclic(More)
The Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) forms a complex with the GDP-bound form of the Rho family small G proteins and inhibits their activation. The GDP-bound form complexed with Rho GDI is not activated by the GDP/GTP exchange factor for the Rho family members, suggesting the presence of another factor necessary for this activation. We have reported that(More)
Cell shape-dependent control of cell-cycle progression underlies the spatial differentials of growth that drive tissue morphogenesis, yet little is known about how cell distortion impacts the biochemical signaling machinery that is responsible for growth control. Here we show that the Rho family GTPase, RhoA, conveys the "cell shape signal" to the(More)
Intravenous anesthetic, propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), is extensively used for general anesthesia without knowing the effects on cancer. We found here that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol (1-5 microg/ml) decreased the invasion ability of human cancer cells (HeLa, HT1080, HOS and RPMI-7951). In the HeLa cells treated with propofol,(More)
mDia1 is a downstream effector of Rho small G protein that is implicated in stress fiber formation and cytokinesis. We isolated an mDia1-binding protein and identified it to be IRSp53/BAIAP2. IRSp53 and BAIAP2 have independently been isolated as a 58/53-kDa protein tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and a BAI1-binding protein, respectively. BAI1(More)
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are small molecules produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. They are lipid mediators that act as autocrine or paracrine factors to regulate inflammation and vascular tone. As a result, drugs that raise EET levels are in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension and many other diseases. However, despite their(More)
Class three semaphorins (SEMAs) were originally shown to be mediators of axon guidance that repelled axons and collapsed growth cones, but it is now evident that SEMA3F, for example, has similar effects on tumor cells and endothelial cells (EC). In both human U87MG glioma cells and human umbilical vein EC, SEMA3F induced rapid cytoskeletal collapse,(More)
Angiogenesis is controlled by physical interactions between cells and extracellular matrix as well as soluble angiogenic factors, such as VEGF. However, the mechanism by which mechanical signals integrate with other microenvironmental cues to regulate neovascularization remains unknown. Here we show that the Rho inhibitor, p190RhoGAP (also known as GRLF1),(More)
Cyclic mechanical strain produced by pulsatile blood flow regulates the orientation of endothelial cells lining blood vessels and influences critical processes such as angiogenesis. Mechanical stimulation of stretch-activated calcium channels is known to mediate this reorientation response; however, the molecular basis remains unknown. Here, we show that(More)
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a ligand of the endothelium-specific receptor Tie-2, inhibits permeability in the mature vasculature, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that Ang-1 signals Rho family GTPases to organize the cytoskeleton into a junction-fortifying arrangement that enhances the permeability barrier function of the endothelium. Ang-1(More)