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CaBP1-8 are neuronal Ca(2+)-binding proteins with similarity to calmodulin (CaM). Here we show that CaBP4 is specifically expressed in photoreceptors, where it is localized to synaptic terminals. The outer plexiform layer, which contains the photoreceptor synapses with secondary neurons, was thinner in the Cabp4(-/-) mice than in control mice. Cabp4(-/-)(More)
The visual (retinoid) cycle is a fundamental metabolic process in vertebrate retina responsible for production of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rhodopsin and cone pigments. 11-cis-Retinal is bound to opsins, forming visual pigments, and when the resulting visual chromophore 11-cis-retinylidene is photoisomerized to all-trans-retinylidene,(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women are a high-risk group for influenza-associated complications and hospitalizations. METHODS To examine the immunogenicity of a monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine among pregnant women, a prospective cohort study was performed at 2 medical institutes of obstetrics in Japan. One hundred fifty subjects received 2 subcutaneous(More)
In vertebrate retinal photoreceptors, the absorption of light by rhodopsin leads to photoisomerization of 11-cis-retinal to its all-trans isomer. To sustain vision, a metabolic system evolved that recycles all-trans-retinal back to 11-cis-retinal. The importance of this visual (retinoid) cycle is underscored by the fact that mutations in genes encoding(More)
Autophagy is a conserved feature of lysosome-mediated intracellular degradation. Dysregulated autophagy is implicated as a contributor in neurodegenerative diseases; however, the role of autophagy in retinal degeneration remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the photo-activated visual chromophore, all-trans-retinal, modulated autophagosome formation(More)
Exposure to bright light can cause visual dysfunction and retinal photoreceptor damage in humans and experimental animals, but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We investigated whether the retinoid cycle (i.e. the series of biochemical reactions required for vision through continuous generation of 11-cis-retinal and clearance of all-trans-retinal,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) gene in patients affected with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) and autosomal dominant/recessive cone-rod dystrophies (CORD). Changes in the promoter region, coding regions and exon/intron junctions of the RDH12 gene(More)
Rhodopsin (Rho) resides within internal membrane structures called disc membranes that are found in the rod outer segments (ROS) of photoreceptors in the retina. Rho expression is essential for formation of ROS, which are absent in knockout Rho-/- mice. ROS of mice heterozygous for the Rho gene deletion (Rho+/-) may have a lower Rho density than wild type(More)
RDH12 has been suggested to be one of the retinol dehydrogenases (RDH) involved in the vitamin A recycling system (visual cycle) in the eye. Loss of function mutations in the RDH12 gene were recently reported to be associated with autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy. Here we show that RDH12 localizes to the photoreceptor inner(More)