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CaBP1-8 are neuronal Ca(2+)-binding proteins with similarity to calmodulin (CaM). Here we show that CaBP4 is specifically expressed in photoreceptors, where it is localized to synaptic terminals. The outer plexiform layer, which contains the photoreceptor synapses with secondary neurons, was thinner in the Cabp4(-/-) mice than in control mice. Cabp4(-/-)(More)
Developing countries account for 84 percent of world population and 93 percent of the worldwide burden of disease; however, they account for only 18 percent of global income and 11 percent of global health spending. Limited resources and administrative capacity coupled with strong underlying needs for services pose serious challenges to governments in the(More)
Autophagy is a conserved feature of lysosome-mediated intracellular degradation. Dysregulated autophagy is implicated as a contributor in neurodegenerative diseases; however, the role of autophagy in retinal degeneration remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the photo-activated visual chromophore, all-trans-retinal, modulated autophagosome formation(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women are a high-risk group for influenza-associated complications and hospitalizations. METHODS To examine the immunogenicity of a monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine among pregnant women, a prospective cohort study was performed at 2 medical institutes of obstetrics in Japan. One hundred fifty subjects received 2 subcutaneous(More)
Although several genetic and biochemical factors are associated with the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, it has yet to be determined how these different impairments can cause similar degenerative phenotypes. Here, we report microglial/macrophage activation in both a Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration mouse model caused by delayed(More)
The oxidation of 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) represents the final step in a metabolic cycle that culminates in visual pigment regeneration. Retinol dehydrogenase 5 (RDH5) is responsible for a majority of the 11-cis-RDH activity in the RPE, but the formation of 11-cis-retinal in rdh5-/- mice suggests another(More)
Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses are attenuated with aging. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels also decrease with aging. Previously, we have reported that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances antigen-specific IgG production, partly through augmentation of GSH levels and T helper 2-mediated responses in 12-week-old(More)
Chronic inflammation is an important component that contributes to many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including macular degeneration. Here, we report a role for toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) of mice lacking ATP-binding cassette transporter 4 (ABCA4) and retinol dehydrogenase 8 (RDH8), proteins critical for(More)
Highly abundant short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases (RDHs) in the retina were assumed to be involved in the recycling of 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the visual cycle. Mutations in human RDH genes are associated with Fundus albipunctatus, a mild form of night blindness (RDH5) and an autosomal recessive, childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy (RDH12).(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) gene in patients affected with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) and autosomal dominant/recessive cone-rod dystrophies (CORD). Changes in the promoter region, coding regions and exon/intron junctions of the RDH12 gene(More)