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We have previously established a minimalist approach to antibody engineering by using a phage-displayed framework to support complementarity determining region (CDR) diversity restricted to a binary code of tyrosine and serine. Here, we systematically augmented the original binary library with additional levels of diversity and examined the effects. The(More)
The fibronectin type III domain (FN3) is a small autonomous folding unit which occurs in many animal proteins involving in ligand binding. The beta-sandwich structure of FN3 closely resembles that of immunoglobulin domains. We have prepared a phage display library of FN3 in which residues in two surface loops were randomized. We have selected mutant FN3s(More)
The functions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are primarily mediated and modulated by three families of proteins: the heterotrimeric G proteins, the G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and the arrestins. G proteins mediate activation of second-messenger-generating enzymes and other effectors, GRKs phosphorylate activated receptors, and(More)
Multidrug transporters belonging to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family expel dissimilar lipophilic and cationic drugs across cell membranes by dissipating a preexisting Na(+) or H(+) gradient. Despite its clinical relevance, the transport mechanism of MATE proteins remains poorly understood, largely owing to a lack of structural(More)
High degrees of sequence and conformation complexity found in natural protein interaction interfaces are generally considered essential for achieving tight and specific interactions. However, it has been demonstrated that specific antibodies can be built by using an interface with a binary code consisting of only Tyr and Ser. This surprising result might be(More)
The estrogen receptor (ER)alpha is a biologically and clinically important ligand-modulated transcription factor. The F domain of the ERalpha modulates its functions in a ligand-, promoter-, and cell-specific manner. To identify the region(s) responsible for these functions, we characterized the effects of serial truncations within the F domain. We found(More)
A 23-residue peptide termed BH(9-10) was designed based on a beta-hairpin segment of the single-layer beta-sheet region of Borrelia OspA protein. The peptide contains a large number of charged amino acid residues, and it does not follow the amphipathic pattern that is commonly found in natural beta-sheets. In aqueous solution, the peptide was highly soluble(More)
A synthetic phage-displayed antibody repertoire was constructed with equivalent chemical diversity in the third complementarity-determining regions of the heavy (CDR-H3) and light (CDR-L3) chains, which contrasts with natural antibodies in which CDR-H3 is much more diverse than CDR-L3 due to the genetic mechanisms that generate antibody encoding genes.(More)
Recent studies have shown that highly simplified interaction surfaces consisting of combinations of just two amino acids, Tyr and Ser, exhibit high affinity and specificity. The high functional levels of such minimalist interfaces might thus indicate small contributions of greater amino acid diversity seen in natural interfaces. Toward addressing this(More)
A number of small organic molecules have been developed that bind to amyloid fibrils, a subset of which also inhibit fibrillization. Among these, the benzothiol dye Thioflavin-T (ThT) has been used for decades in the diagnosis of protein-misfolding diseases and in kinetic studies of self-assembly (fibrillization). Despite its importance, efforts to(More)