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There exists a d-enantiomer of aspartic acid in lactic acid bacteria and several hyperthermophilic archaea, which is biosynthesized from the l-enantiomer by aspartate racemase. Aspartate racemase is a representative pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-independent amino acid racemase. The "two-base" catalytic mechanism has been proposed for this type of racemase,(More)
The [2Fe-2S] transcription factor SoxR, a member of the MerR family, functions as a bacterial sensor of oxidative stress such as superoxide and nitric oxide. SoxR is activated by reversible one-electron oxidation of the [2Fe-2S] cluster and then enhances the production of various antioxidant proteins through the soxRS regulon. In the active state, SoxR and(More)
The crystal structure of an oxidatively stable subtilisin-like alkaline serine protease, KP-43 from Bacillus sp. KSM-KP43, with a C-terminal extension domain, was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacements method with anomalous scattering. The native form was refined to a crystallographic R factor of 0.134 (Rfree of 0.169) at 1.30-A resolution.(More)
Novokinin (RPLKPW), LPYPR, and rubiscolin (YPLDLF) are bioactive peptides with respective hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic, and memory-enhancing activities. We generated transgenic soybean lines that expressed modified forms of the alpha' subunit of seed storage protein beta-conglycinin containing tandem repeats of these bioactive peptides. The modified(More)
Mouthless and gutless marine animals, pogonophorans and vestimentiferans, obtain their nutrition solely from their symbiotic chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These animals have sulfide-binding 400-kDa and/or 3,500-kDa Hb, which transports oxygen and sulfide simultaneously. The symbiotic bacteria are supplied with sulfide by Hb of the host animal(More)
Chitosanase from Bacillus circulans MH-K1 is a 29-kDa extracellular protein composed of 259 amino acids. The crystal structure of chitosanase from B. circulans MH-K1 has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method and refined to crystallographic R = 19.2% (R(free) = 23.5%) for the diffraction data at 1.6-A resolution collected by(More)
The crystal structure of a calcium-free alpha-amylase (AmyK38) from Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K38, which resists chelating reagents and chemical oxidants, has been determined by the molecular replacement method and refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 19.9% (R-free of 23.2%) at 2.13-A resolution. The main chain folding of AmyK38 is almost homologous to(More)