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The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) is highly expressed in Purkinje neurons (PNs) and is thought to be essential for the induction of long-term depression at parallel-fiber-PN synapses. Here, by imaging the fluorescence intensity of the low-affinity Ca2+ indicator inside the Ca2+ stores in the permeabilized single PNs, we analyzed the kinetics(More)
Ciliary and flagellar axonemes contain multiple inner arm dyneins of which the functional difference is largely unknown. In this study, a Chlamydomonas mutant, ida9, lacking inner arm dynein c was isolated and shown to carry a mutation in the DHC9 dynein heavy chain gene. The cDNA sequence of DHC9 was determined, and its information was used to show that(More)
Substance P-immunoreactivity in neurons projecting to the spinal cord was examined using retrograde tract-tracing method combined with immunohistochemical techniques in chickens. Many small substance P-immunoreactive neurons were densely clustered in the midline area in the rostral midbrain, the rostromedian area (80% of the neurons in the rostromedian(More)
AIMS The posterior region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which forms its sulcogyral pattern during neurodevelopment, receives multisensory inputs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between posterior OFC sulcogyral pattern and OFC volume difference in patients with panic disorder. METHODS The anatomical pattern of the(More)
AIM Although recent studies suggest abnormalities of the cerebral cortex, limbic structures, and brain stem regions in panic disorder (PD), the extent to which the midbrain is associated with PD pathophysiology is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate structural abnormalities of the midbrain using magnetic resonance imaging and to determine if(More)
Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) is an activity-dependent depression of synaptic transmission from parallel fibers to Purkinje cells underlying certain forms of motor learning. LTD is induced by the conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fibers, both of which supply excitatory inputs to Purkinje cells. The conjunctive stimulation(More)
BACKGROUND Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, called endosymbionts which can be classified as obligate or accessory. Buchnera aphidicola is generally the only obligatory symbiont present in aphids, supplying essential nutrients that are missing in the plants phloem to its host. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the main vector of the(More)
The tectal lamination was investigated in the central part of the chick embryonic tectum. Two and 5 layers were observed above the neuroepithelium (NE) on embryonic day 6 (E6) and E8, respectively. Optic fibers extended on the surface of the tectum by E8. On E10-11, the outer tectum was composed of 2 layers, that is, a fibrous layer forming the optic fiber(More)
AIM The sulcogyral pattern of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is characterized by a remarkable inter-individual variability that likely reflects neurobehavioral traits and genetic aspects of neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the OFC sulcogyral pattern of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) to determine(More)