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Capsaicinoids are responsible for the spicy flavor of pungent peppers (Capsicum). The cultivar CH-19 Sweet is a non-pungent pepper mutant derived from a pungent pepper strain, Capsicum annuum CH-19. CH-19 Sweet biosynthesizes capsaicinoid analogs, capsinoids. We determined the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of capsinoid biosynthesis in this cultivar. We(More)
The detection threshold and taste characteristics of sanshools were examined by sensory evaluation, after isolating four sanshools (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-), and two hydroxy sanshools (alpha- and beta-) from the pericarp of Japanese pepper. The Scoville unit (SU) values of the four sanshools were in the range of 80,000-110,000, while those of(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) binding to its receptor TrkA, which belongs to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), is known to induce its internalization, endosomal trafficking and subsequent lysosomal degradation. The Cbl family of ubiquitin ligases plays a major role in mediating ubiquitination and degradation of RTKs. However, it is not known(More)
Analogs of capsaicin, such as capsaicinoids and capsinoids, activate a cation channel, transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1), and then increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). These compounds would be expected to activate TRPV1 via different mechanism(s), depending on their properties. We synthesized(More)
BDD-based approaches cannot handle some arithmetic functions such as multiplication efficiently, while Binary Moment Diagrams proposed by Bryant and Chen provide compact representations for those functions. They reported a BMD-based polynomial-time algorithm for verifying multipliers. This approach requires high-level information such as specifications to(More)
We investigated the components of ginger that are involved in increasing body temperature. Gingerols ([6,8,10]-gingerols) and shogaols ([6,8,10]-shogaols) having different alkyl carbon chain lengths were targeted. All the gingerols and shogaols increased intracellular calcium concentration in rat transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1(More)
Binary Decision Diagrams(BDDs) have been used as a very powerful tool for manipulating Boolean functions in various application domains, in particular, design veriication of logic circuits. We can represent m a n y practical functions with reasonable size of BDDs, and perform Boolean operations very eeciently. Unfortunately, the sizes of the BDDs for(More)
Endothelin (ET-21) induced a sustained contraction of rat thoracic aortae (EC50 = 2.65 x 10(-10) M) in vitro, and caused a potent pressor effect in vivo after intravenous administration to rats. In contrast, the precursor deduced from porcine cDNA coding ET-21 (pET-39) had 100-fold less contractile activity in vitro (EC50 = 3.26 x 10(-8) M), and so did the(More)
Inhibitory activities toward the endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) were detected in pepsin digests of bonito pyrolic appendix and beef. After Sep-Pak C18 fractionation, this activity from bonito and beef was recovered in the 50% and 25% ethanol fractions, respectively. Activities were also recovered in the ultrafiltrate (< 5000 Da), and disappeared after a(More)