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The cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents are strongly attenuated by cellular DNA repair processes, necessitating a clear understanding of the repair mechanisms. Simple methylating agents form adducts at N- and O-atoms. N-methylations are removed by base excision repair, AlkB homologues, or nucleotide excision repair (NER). O(6)-methylguanine (MeG), which(More)
Conventional clinical treatments with X-rays provide an effective modality for widely various human cancers, however, therapeutic results are sometimes poor. Many mutations have been reported to be in the p53 gene in advanced human cancers. The p53 plays a pivotal role in the pathway which controls apoptosis, cell growth and cell proliferation, and(More)
The reduced biological effects of radiation exposure seen in cells after conditioning exposures to a low dose or at a low-dose rate (i.e., the acquisition of resistance against high-dose radiation) is called the "radioadaptive response" and many studies concerning this phenomenon have been reported since the 1980s. Radioadaptive responses have been observed(More)
To identify the repair dynamics involved in high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation-induced DNA damage, phospho-H2AX (gammaH2AX) foci formation was analyzed after cellular exposure to iron ions (Fe-ions, 500 MeV u(-1), 200 KeV microm(-1)). The foci located at DNA damage sites were visualized using immunocytochemical methods. Since H2AX is phosphorylated(More)
BACKGROUND Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key enzyme involved in the repair of radiation-induced single-strand DNA breaks. PARP inhibitors such as olaparib (KU-0059436, AZD-2281) enhance tumor sensitivity to radiation and to topoisomerase I inhibitors like camptothecin (CPT). Olaparib is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of PARP-1 and PARP-2(More)
Ultrasonic technologies pervade the medical field: as a long established imaging modality in clinical diagnostics; and, with the emergence of targeted high intensity focused ultrasound, as a means of thermally ablating tumours. In parallel, the potential of [non-thermal] intermediate intensity ultrasound as a minimally invasive therapy is also being(More)
Nimustine (ACNU) and temozolomide (TMZ) are DNA alkylating agents which are commonly used in chemotherapy for glioblastomas. ACNU is a DNA cross-linking agent and TMZ is a methylating agent. The therapeutic efficacy of these agents is limited by the development of resistance. In this work, the role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage(More)
INTRODUCTION Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells). To examine the(More)
This study examined the direct effects of short-term psychoeducation on relatives of inpatients with schizophrenia, with the goal of introducing this type of support program into standard care. The subjects were 46 relatives of inpatients with schizophrenia who attended three or four sessions of psychoeducation. Levels of anxiety and subjective burden and(More)
Stress response mechanisms that modulate the dynamics of tRNA degradation and accumulation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus have been studied in yeast, the rat hepatoma and human cells. In the current study, we investigated tRNA degradation and accumulation in HeLa cells under various forms of stress. We found that initiator tRNA(Met) (tRNA(iMet)) was(More)