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Recent evidence suggests that mammalian cysteine proteases related to Caenorhabditis elegans CED-3 are key components of mammalian programmed cell death or apoptosis. We have shown recently that the CPP32 and Mch2 alpha cysteine proteases cleave the apoptotic markers poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and lamins, respectively. Here we report the cloning of(More)
The cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents are strongly attenuated by cellular DNA repair processes, necessitating a clear understanding of the repair mechanisms. Simple methylating agents form adducts at N- and O-atoms. N-methylations are removed by base excision repair, AlkB homologues, or nucleotide excision repair (NER). O(6)-methylguanine (MeG), which(More)
Superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity represent a rationale for heavy-ion therapy, which has thus far achieved good cancer controllability while sparing critical normal organs. Immediately after irradiation, heavy ions produce dense ionization along their trajectories, cause irreparable clustered DNA damage, and alter cellular ultrastructure.(More)
Conventional clinical treatments with X-rays provide an effective modality for widely various human cancers, however, therapeutic results are sometimes poor. Many mutations have been reported to be in the p53 gene in advanced human cancers. The p53 plays a pivotal role in the pathway which controls apoptosis, cell growth and cell proliferation, and(More)
To identify the repair dynamics involved in high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation-induced DNA damage, phospho-H2AX (gammaH2AX) foci formation was analyzed after cellular exposure to iron ions (Fe-ions, 500 MeV u(-1), 200 KeV microm(-1)). The foci located at DNA damage sites were visualized using immunocytochemical methods. Since H2AX is phosphorylated(More)
The reduced biological effects of radiation exposure seen in cells after conditioning exposures to a low dose or at a low-dose rate (i.e., the acquisition of resistance against high-dose radiation) is called the "radioadaptive response" and many studies concerning this phenomenon have been reported since the 1980s. Radioadaptive responses have been observed(More)
BACKGROUND Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key enzyme involved in the repair of radiation-induced single-strand DNA breaks. PARP inhibitors such as olaparib (KU-0059436, AZD-2281) enhance tumor sensitivity to radiation and to topoisomerase I inhibitors like camptothecin (CPT). Olaparib is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of PARP-1 and PARP-2(More)
Ultrasonic technologies pervade the medical field: as a long established imaging modality in clinical diagnostics; and, with the emergence of targeted high intensity focused ultrasound, as a means of thermally ablating tumours. In parallel, the potential of [non-thermal] intermediate intensity ultrasound as a minimally invasive therapy is also being(More)
Nimustine (ACNU) and temozolomide (TMZ) are DNA alkylating agents which are commonly used in chemotherapy for glioblastomas. ACNU is a DNA cross-linking agent and TMZ is a methylating agent. The therapeutic efficacy of these agents is limited by the development of resistance. In this work, the role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage(More)
INTRODUCTION Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells). To examine the(More)