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The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living(More)
The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA(-/-), FANCC(-/-), FANCA(-/-)C(-/-), FANCD2(-/-) and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their(More)
The cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents are strongly attenuated by cellular DNA repair processes, necessitating a clear understanding of the repair mechanisms. Simple methylating agents form adducts at N- and O-atoms. N-methylations are removed by base excision repair, AlkB homologues, or nucleotide excision repair (NER). O(6)-methylguanine (MeG), which(More)
  • A Takahashi
  • 2001
PURPOSE This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of acute or chronic pre-irradiation on the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis by X-rays or heat shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS Having an identical genotype except for p53-status, the human cultured squamous cell carcinoma cells (SAS) were transfected with a mutant p53 gene (SAS/mp53) or neo alone(More)
PURPOSE We analyzed the death pattern of human lung cancer cells harboring different p53 statuses after irradiation with different levels of linear energy transfer (LET). METHODS AND MATERIALS We used three kinds of human lung cancer cell lines with identical genotypes, except for the p53 gene. These cells were exposed to X-rays or accelerated carbon-ion(More)
Photoreactivation (PR) is an efficient survival mechanism that helps protect cells against the harmful effects of solar-ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The PR mechanism involves photolyase, just one enzyme, and can repair DNA damage, such as cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPD) induced by near-UV/blue light, a component of sunlight. Although the balance of(More)
Superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity represent a rationale for heavy-ion therapy, which has thus far achieved good cancer controllability while sparing critical normal organs. Immediately after irradiation, heavy ions produce dense ionization along their trajectories, cause irreparable clustered DNA damage, and alter cellular ultrastructure.(More)
H2AX is a histone variant that is systematically found and ubiquitously distributed throughout the genome. Since it has been reported that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (gammaH2AX), an immunocytochemical assay with antibodies recognizing gammaH2AX has become the gold standard for the detection of DSBs. This(More)
Human cells accumulate at least 10,000 DNA lesions every day. Failure to repair such lesions can lead to mutations, genomic instability, or cell death. Among the various types of damage which can be expressed in a cell, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the most serious threat. Different kinds of physical, chemical, and biological factors have been(More)
Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams,(More)