Akihisa Takahashi

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H2AX is a histone variant that is systematically found and ubiquitously distributed throughout the genome. Since it has been reported that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (gammaH2AX), an immunocytochemical assay with antibodies recognizing gammaH2AX has become the gold standard for the detection of DSBs. This(More)
The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living(More)
H2AX is a histone variant which is present and ubiquitously distributed throughout the genome. An immunocytochemical assay using antibodies capable of recognizing histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139 (gammaH2AX) is very sensitive and is a specific indicator for the existence of a DNA double strand break. Although heat stress has been reported to induce(More)
The cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents are strongly attenuated by cellular DNA repair processes, necessitating a clear understanding of the repair mechanisms. Simple methylating agents form adducts at N- and O-atoms. N-methylations are removed by base excision repair, AlkB homologues, or nucleotide excision repair (NER). O(6)-methylguanine (MeG), which(More)
Superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity represent a rationale for heavy-ion therapy, which has thus far achieved good cancer controllability while sparing critical normal organs. Immediately after irradiation, heavy ions produce dense ionization along their trajectories, cause irreparable clustered DNA damage, and alter cellular ultrastructure.(More)
A classical paradigm [correction of paradym] of radiation biology asserts that all radiation effects on cells, tissues and organisms are due to the direct action of radiation. However, there has been a recent growth of interest in the indirect actions of radiation including the radiation-induced adaptive response, the bystander effect, low-dose(More)
To identify critical events associated with heat-induced cell killing, we examined foci formation of gammaH2AX (histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139) in heat-treated cells. This assay is known to be quite sensitive and a specific indicator for the presence of double-strand breaks. We found that the number of gammaH2AX foci increased rapidly and reached(More)
Nimustine (ACNU) and temozolomide (TMZ) are DNA alkylating agents which are commonly used in chemotherapy for glioblastomas. ACNU is a DNA cross-linking agent and TMZ is a methylating agent. The therapeutic efficacy of these agents is limited by the development of resistance. In this work, the role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage(More)
The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA(-/-), FANCC(-/-), FANCA(-/-)C(-/-), FANCD2(-/-) and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their(More)
Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams,(More)