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OBJECTIVE Repetitive paired-pulse TMS (rPPS) given at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 1.5 ms has been reported to induce a lasting motor evoked potential (MEP) facilitation. This after-effect was considered to be a cortical event because F-waves were not affected by the same rPPS. To confirm its cortical facilitation, we compared the after-effects of(More)
The cardinal pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to be the increase in the activities of basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei, which excessively inhibits the thalamus and superior colliculus (SC) and causes preferential impairment of internal over external movements. Here we recorded saccade performance in 66 patients with PD and 87(More)
OBJECTIVE Repetitive paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at I-wave periodicity has been shown to induce a motor-evoked potential (MEP) facilitation. We hypothesized that a greater enhancement of motor cortical excitability is provoked by increasing the number of pulses per train beyond those by paired-pulse stimulation (PPS). METHODS We(More)
The aim of the present paper is to study effects of short and long duration transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the human motor cortex. In eight normal volunteers, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, and tDCS was given with electrodes(More)
OBJECTIVE The short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of the motor cortex (M1) is reduced in both cortical myoclonus and focal hand dystonia. This reduction has been attributed to the dysfunction of GABAergic system within the motor cortex. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the reduction may not be entirely identical in these two disorders,(More)
Postural tremor is a common initial symptom in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), but its pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be studied. This study was undertaken to examine the physiological mechanisms underlying postural tremor in SBMA. For eight patients (36-63 years old) with genetically confirmed SBMA, we recorded surface electromyograms(More)
OBJECTIVES The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in controlling saccades. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely used as a treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) by altering the function of the BG. Nevertheless, the effects of STN DBS on saccade performance are not fully clarified in a systematic manner. In this study,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field (pulsed EMF) emitted by a mobile phone has short-term effects on saccade performances. METHODS A double blind, counterbalanced crossover design was employed. In 10 normal subjects, we studied the performance of visually guided saccade (VGS), gap saccade (GAP), and(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia with pure cerebellar presentation (SCD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA-C) show similar symptoms at early stages, although cerebellofugal pathology predominates in SCD, and cerebellopetal pathology in MSA-C. We studied whether saccade velocity profiles, which reflect the accelerating and braking functions of(More)