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Recently there has been an increasing incidence of occupational cervicobrachial disorders (OCD) and writer's cramp in office workers using ballpoint pens in writing operations. For the sake of workers who use ballpoint pens, it is essential to prevent such health hazards. It has been observed that a strong gripping pressure on the ballpoint pen(More)
The number of nursing home has increased largely in Japan since 1990. The Long-term Care Insurance in 2000 has accelerated the increase of nursing homes. The care giving and cooking in nursing homes have high risk factors of muscle-skeletal diseases (MSDs). However, the working conditions have not yet been improved. Thus, the incidence of low back pain and(More)
In the Japanese newspaper industry, since the late 1970s, computerization has been started in large scale. The system, called Computerized Typesetting System (CTS), has been introduced. With this system, all information in the newspaper is input into a computer, called up on a cathode ray display (CRT) to edit, and then output to film or printing plates by(More)
According to Council Directive 93/119/EC, animals shall be spared any avoidable pain or suffering at the time of slaughter or killing. Therefore, solipeds, ruminants, pigs, rabbits and poultry shall be stunned before slaughter or killed instantaneously. However, as certain religious groups require that animals should not be stunned prior to slaughter, the(More)
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