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It is unknown whether adipokines derived from adipose tissues modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced in obesity. Here, we show that visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) binds to cell-surface 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which is recruited from ER to plasma membrane under ER stress. Vaspin transgenic(More)
Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a ligand for T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3), induces apoptosis in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)(+) Tim-3(+) T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells via the Gal-9-Tim-3 pathway and negatively regulates T(H)1 immunity. In turn, Gal-9 activates dendritic cells (DC) to produce TNF-α, which promotes the T(H)1 response. We investigated the efficacy of Gal-9(More)
BACKGROUND Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (TH1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such(More)
This study characterizes the sequential alterations of, and relations between, multiple electrolytes in cytoplasm, mitochondria, and whole cells during hypoxia and on reoxygenation in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Subcellular electrolyte content and distribution were measured by electron probe x-ray microanalysis, membrane phospholipid(More)
Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt) catalyzes the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) mainly in the liver. Under an obese state, the upregulation of Pemt induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by increasing the PC/PE ratio in the liver. We targeted the Pemt gene in mice to explore the therapeutic(More)
OBJECTIVE In obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impairment of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue (WAT) is linked to a reduction in whole body insulin sensitivity. Timm44 is upregulated in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In the inner mitochondrial membrane, Timm44 anchors mitochondrial heat-shock protein 70 (mtHsp70) to the(More)
CONTEXT Vaspin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects identified from visceral adipose tissues of genetically obese rats. OBJECTIVE We investigated genetic and nongenetic factors that define serum concentrations of vaspin. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Vaspin levels were measured with RIA in Japanese subjects with normal fasting plasma(More)
PURPOSE The unique circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) observed in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are candidates as new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In order to identify circulating miRNAs relevant to the disease process in case of type 2 diabetes, we performed the Illumina sequencing of miRNAs derived from the serum, liver and epididymal white(More)