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Human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily recognizes bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) and peptidoglycan (PGN). According to the genome information, chicken has structural orthologs of TLRs1 and 2, in addition to TLRs3, 4, 5 and 7. Chicken has two additional TLRs, TLR15 and TLR21, whose orthologs human lacks. The chicken (ch)TLR1 and 2 genes are individually(More)
BACKGROUND FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells (MCs) plays a central role in allergic responses. Recent evidence shows that exposure to microbial components corresponds with a significant reduction in the risk for allergic diseases. Although many reports suggest that this is due to changes in T-cell functions, how MC functions are altered by bacterial(More)
An anuran amphibian, South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), is used to study the immune system, as it possesses a set of acquired immune system represented by T and B lymphocytes and the immunoglobulins. The acquired immune system is impaired throughout the larva and the metamorphosis stage in the amphibians. On the other hand, the role of innate(More)
Hydrostatic pressure is a well-known physical stimulus, but its effects on cell physiology have not been clarified. To investigate pressure effects on Escherichia coli, we carried out DNA microarray analysis of the entire E. coli genome. The microarray results showed pleiotropic effects on gene expression. In particular, heat- and cold-stress responses were(More)
Some rod-shaped bacteria, including Escherichia coli, exhibit cell filamentation without septum formation under high-hydrostatic-pressure conditions, indicating that the cell-division process is affected by hydrostatic pressure. The effects of elevated pressure on FtsZ-ring formation in E. coli cells were examined using indirect immunofluorescence(More)
Fruit bats are suspected to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the viral glycoprotein antigens, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in 71 of 748 serum samples collected from migratory fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia during 2006-2013.(More)
Fish express mammalian-type (M-type) TLRs consisting of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and Toll-IL-1R (TIR) homology domain for immunity, whereas invertebrates in deuterostomes appear to have no orthologs of M-type TLRs. Lampetra japonica (lamprey) belongs to the lowest class of vertebrates with little information about its TLRs. We have identified two cDNA(More)
We report the results of a non-randomized phase II study of low-dose thalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone therapy in 66 patients with refractory multiple myeloma. The overall response rate (near complete, partial and minimal response) was 63.6%, and progression-free and overall survival periods were 6.2 and 25.4 months. In adverse events, the incidence(More)
Fish has a soluble form of TLR5 ortholog (TLR5S), which does not exist in mammals. We identified TLR5S from rainbow trout and named rtTLR5S, which was about 38% homologous to the extracellular domains of human (hu) and mouse TLR5. Adjuvancy of rtTLR5S to flagellin response by human TLR5 (huTLR5) was tested in this study. A chimera constructed of rtTLR5S and(More)
This study compared the prevalence of trypanosome infections estimated by PFR-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. One hundred forty eight cattle blood samples were collected from Robanda village, Mara region, Tanzania in April 2008. In conventional PCR, four sets of primers, specific for the(More)