Akihiro Ishii

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Human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily recognizes bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) and peptidoglycan (PGN). According to the genome information, chicken has structural orthologs of TLRs1 and 2, in addition to TLRs3, 4, 5 and 7. Chicken has two additional TLRs, TLR15 and TLR21, whose orthologs human lacks. The chicken (ch)TLR1 and 2 genes are individually(More)
BACKGROUND FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells (MCs) plays a central role in allergic responses. Recent evidence shows that exposure to microbial components corresponds with a significant reduction in the risk for allergic diseases. Although many reports suggest that this is due to changes in T-cell functions, how MC functions are altered by bacterial(More)
Hydrostatic pressure is a well-known physical stimulus, but its effects on cell physiology have not been clarified. To investigate pressure effects on Escherichia coli, we carried out DNA microarray analysis of the entire E. coli genome. The microarray results showed pleiotropic effects on gene expression. In particular, heat- and cold-stress responses were(More)
Some rod-shaped bacteria, including Escherichia coli, exhibit cell filamentation without septum formation under high-hydrostatic-pressure conditions, indicating that the cell-division process is affected by hydrostatic pressure. The effects of elevated pressure on FtsZ-ring formation in E. coli cells were examined using indirect immunofluorescence(More)
An anuran amphibian, South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), is used to study the immune system, as it possesses a set of acquired immune system represented by T and B lymphocytes and the immunoglobulins. The acquired immune system is impaired throughout the larva and the metamorphosis stage in the amphibians. On the other hand, the role of innate(More)
To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA-positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus-related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate(More)
Fish has a soluble form of TLR5 ortholog (TLR5S), which does not exist in mammals. We identified TLR5S from rainbow trout and named rtTLR5S, which was about 38% homologous to the extracellular domains of human (hu) and mouse TLR5. Adjuvancy of rtTLR5S to flagellin response by human TLR5 (huTLR5) was tested in this study. A chimera constructed of rtTLR5S and(More)
To investigate polyomavirus infection in wild rodents, we analysed DNA samples from the spleens of 100 wild rodents from Zambia using a broad-spectrum PCR-based assay. A previously unknown polyomavirus genome was identified in a sample from a multimammate mouse (Mastomys species) and the entire viral genome of 4899 bp was subsequently sequenced. This viral(More)
Wildlife may harbor infectious pathogens that are of zoonotic concern acting as a reservoir of diseases transmissible to humans and domestic animals. This is due to human-wildlife conflicts that have become more frequent and severe over recent decades, competition for the available natural habitats and resources leading to increased human encroachment on(More)
BACKGROUND In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed(More)