Akihiro Hirata

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BACKGROUND Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a malignant tumor with poor long-term prognosis due to development of metastasis despite aggressive treatment. The phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is involved in its endothelial pathologies; however, it remains unknown how this pathway plays a role in canine(More)
Recent evidence has suggested that the hippocampal CA2 region plays an important role in the recognition process. We have reported that ischemic damage in the hippocampal CA2 region following transient ischemia is caused by apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Galectin-3 is a β-galactosidase-binding lectin that is important in cell(More)
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and have a poor prognosis. Galectin-3 is a β-galactosidase-binding lectin which is important in pre-mRNA splicing, regulation of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Although galectin-3 has been shown as a glioma related marker and expression of galectin-3 has been reported to correlate(More)
IDO, an enzyme that degrades the essential amino acid L-tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine, is known to exert immunomodulatory effects in a number of diseases and disorders. IDO expression is increased in tumors, where it is thought to be involved in tumor evasion by suppressing the immune response. A competitive inhibitor of IDO is currently being tested in(More)
OBJECTIVES Oxygen tension is an important component of microenvironment for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells including neural lineage. However, the comprehensive influence of hypoxia on neural differentiation during embryonic neural development has not yet been examined. METHODS In this study, we investigated the effect of low oxygen levels (5%(More)
BACKGROUND Gastric metastasis from osteosarcoma is very rare and its clinical features are not well recognized. CASE PRESENTATION A 73-year-old man was diagnosed with osteosarcoma and treated with four cycles of preoperative chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin followed by wide resection. Two cycles of postoperative chemotherapy with ifosfamide(More)
Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and(More)
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of various retinal cell degeneration models in animal induced by chemicals (N-methyl-D-aspartate- and CoCl2-induced), autoimmune (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), mechanical stress (optic nerve crush-induced, light-induced) and ischemia (transient retinal ischemia-induced). The target regions,(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that degrades the essential amino acid l-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, exerts immunomodulatory effects in a number of diseases. IDO expression is increased in tumor tissue and in draining lymph nodes; this increase is thought to play a role in tumor evasion by suppressing the immune response. A(More)
The development of ectopic gastric, intestinal, or pancreatic tissue in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare in rats, although it is fairly common in humans. In this report, we describe an unusual case in which a mixture of different types of ectopic tissue was found in the forestomach of a rat. A solitary white nodular/polypoid structure, which(More)
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