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The objective of this paper is to develop an outer sheath for flexible endoscopic manipulators. This sheath can switch two states including flexible and rigid, and make a rigid curved path for inserting manipulators. The flexible mode can be curved into a required shape. The rigid mode can hold the shape of the sheath, and then keep the path for(More)
Diel vertical migration (DVM), which is a well-known behavior of planktonic organisms, is influenced by several factors, including predation, ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and food. The larvae of Chaoborus (Diptera) exhibit DVM in lakes and ponds. However, it is unclear whether the DVM of Chaoborus larvae changes seasonally and whether induction cues(More)
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