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S100/calgranulin polypeptides are present at sites of inflammation, likely released by inflammatory cells targeted to such loci by a range of environmental cues. We report here that receptor for AGE (RAGE) is a central cell surface receptor for EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein) and related members of the S100/calgranulin(More)
Acute inflammation in the poststroke period exacerbates neuronal damage and stimulates reparative mechanisms, including neurogenesis. However, only a small fraction of neural stem/progenitor cells survives. In this report, by using a highly reproducible model of cortical infarction in SCID mice, we examined the effects of immunodeficiency on reduction of(More)
The CNS has the potential to marshal strong reparative mechanisms, including activation of endogenous neurogenesis, after a brain injury such as stroke. However, the response of neural stem/progenitor cells to stroke is poorly understood. Recently, neural stem/progenitor cells have been identified in the cerebral cortex, as well as previously recognized(More)
Increasing evidence points to accelerated neurogenesis after stroke, and support of such endogenous neurogenesis has been shown to improve stroke outcome in experimental animal models. The present study analyses post-stroke cerebral cortex after cardiogenic embolism in autoptic human brain. Induction of nestin- and musashi-1-positive cells, potential neural(More)
Neural activity induces the remodeling of pre- and postsynaptic membranes, which maintain their apposition through cell adhesion molecules. Among them, N-cadherin is redistributed, undergoes activity-dependent conformational changes, and is required for synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that depolarization induces the enlargement of the width of spine(More)
The beneficial effects of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARB) in cerebrovascular disease have been shown in clinical trials. However, the effects of ARBs vary based on their unique pharmacologic properties. In this study, we focused on telmisartan, a fat-soluble ARB with selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma)(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues primarily by stimulating the translocation of vesicles containing a facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. The formation of stable soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a recessive neurologic and endocrinologic degenerative disorder, and is also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, early-onset Diabetes Mellitus, progressive Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome. Most affected individuals carry recessive mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1). However, the phenotypic(More)
Increasing evidence shows that neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) can be activated in the nonconventional neurogenic zones such as the cortex following ischemic stroke. However, the precise origin, identity, and subtypes of the ischemia-induced NSPCs (iNSPCs), which can contribute to cortical neurogenesis, is currently still unclear. In our present study,(More)
Neural cell transplantation, a new therapeutic strategy for replacing injured neural components and obtaining functional recovery, has shown beneficial effects in animal models. Use of this strategy in human patients, however, requires that a number of serious issues be addressed, including ethics, immunorejection, and the therapeutic time window within(More)