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Acute inflammation in the poststroke period exacerbates neuronal damage and stimulates reparative mechanisms, including neurogenesis. However, only a small fraction of neural stem/progenitor cells survives. In this report, by using a highly reproducible model of cortical infarction in SCID mice, we examined the effects of immunodeficiency on reduction of(More)
S100/calgranulin polypeptides are present at sites of inflammation, likely released by inflammatory cells targeted to such loci by a range of environmental cues. We report here that receptor for AGE (RAGE) is a central cell surface receptor for EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein) and related members of the S100/calgranulin(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a multi-ligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, interacts with distinct molecules implicated in homeostasis, development and inflammation, and certain diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Engagement of RAGE by a ligand triggers activation of key cell(More)
It is well established that leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins such as connectin, slit, chaoptin, and Toll have pivotal roles in neuronal development in Drosophila as cell adhesion molecules. However, to date, little information concerning mammalian LRR proteins has been reported. In the present study, we sought LRR proteins of the mouse brain, based on the(More)
Neural activity induces the remodeling of pre- and postsynaptic membranes, which maintain their apposition through cell adhesion molecules. Among them, N-cadherin is redistributed, undergoes activity-dependent conformational changes, and is required for synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that depolarization induces the enlargement of the width of spine(More)
Increasing evidence points to accelerated neurogenesis after stroke, and support of such endogenous neurogenesis has been shown to improve stroke outcome in experimental animal models. The present study analyses post-stroke cerebral cortex after cardiogenic embolism in autoptic human brain. Induction of nestin- and musashi-1-positive cells, potential neural(More)
The beneficial effects of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARB) in cerebrovascular disease have been shown in clinical trials. However, the effects of ARBs vary based on their unique pharmacologic properties. In this study, we focused on telmisartan, a fat-soluble ARB with selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma)(More)
Choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells (CPECs) produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to provide the CNS with a specialized microenvironment. Our previous study showed that the conditioned medium of cultured CPECs enhanced the survival and neurite extension of hippocampal neurons. The present study examined the ability of cultured CPECs to protect against ischemic(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues primarily by stimulating the translocation of vesicles containing a facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. The formation of stable soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein receptor(More)
The mammalian transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 are essential components of the molecular clock that coordinate behavior and metabolism with the solar cycle. Genetic or environmental perturbation of circadian cycles contributes to metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. To study the impact of the cell-autonomous clock on pancreatic β cell(More)