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Acute inflammation in the poststroke period exacerbates neuronal damage and stimulates reparative mechanisms, including neurogenesis. However, only a small fraction of neural stem/progenitor cells survives. In this report, by using a highly reproducible model of cortical infarction in SCID mice, we examined the effects of immunodeficiency on reduction of(More)
S100/calgranulin polypeptides are present at sites of inflammation, likely released by inflammatory cells targeted to such loci by a range of environmental cues. We report here that receptor for AGE (RAGE) is a central cell surface receptor for EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein) and related members of the S100/calgranulin(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a multi-ligand member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, interacts with distinct molecules implicated in homeostasis, development and inflammation, and certain diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Engagement of RAGE by a ligand triggers activation of key cell(More)
It is well established that leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins such as connectin, slit, chaoptin, and Toll have pivotal roles in neuronal development in Drosophila as cell adhesion molecules. However, to date, little information concerning mammalian LRR proteins has been reported. In the present study, we sought LRR proteins of the mouse brain, based on the(More)
Neural activity induces the remodeling of pre- and postsynaptic membranes, which maintain their apposition through cell adhesion molecules. Among them, N-cadherin is redistributed, undergoes activity-dependent conformational changes, and is required for synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that depolarization induces the enlargement of the width of spine(More)
Increasing evidence points to accelerated neurogenesis after stroke, and support of such endogenous neurogenesis has been shown to improve stroke outcome in experimental animal models. The present study analyses post-stroke cerebral cortex after cardiogenic embolism in autoptic human brain. Induction of nestin- and musashi-1-positive cells, potential neural(More)
The beneficial effects of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARB) in cerebrovascular disease have been shown in clinical trials. However, the effects of ARBs vary based on their unique pharmacologic properties. In this study, we focused on telmisartan, a fat-soluble ARB with selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma)(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues primarily by stimulating the translocation of vesicles containing a facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT4, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. The formation of stable soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a recessive neurologic and endocrinologic degenerative disorder, and is also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, early-onset Diabetes Mellitus, progressive Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome. Most affected individuals carry recessive mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1). However, the phenotypic(More)
The CNS has the potential to marshal strong reparative mechanisms, including activation of endogenous neurogenesis, after a brain injury such as stroke. However, the response of neural stem/progenitor cells to stroke is poorly understood. Recently, neural stem/progenitor cells have been identified in the cerebral cortex, as well as previously recognized(More)