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OBJECTIVES To determine if providing perinatal immunization education positively changes the immunization status of infants, influences the infant immunization knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of mothers and affects the intent to vaccinate children in Japan where immunization education is limited. METHODS Pregnant women were recruited from three sites in(More)
BACKGROUND Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6)-G516T genotype is associated with altered activity of hepatic CYP2B6 and efavirenz pharmacokinetics, but the relationship between the CYP2B6-G516T genotype and nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited. METHODS In 126 children who received NVP and protease inhibitors from(More)
OBJECTIVE An unstructured treatment interruption in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is an issue with unresolved significance. The objective of this study was to investigate the actual prevalence and clinical outcomes of a treatment interruption in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. METHODS Clinical data(More)
The "vaccine gap" is a term which has been used in Japan to indicate that the current immunization program is behind compared to the programs in other developed countries. The current national immunization program (NIP) which was established under the Japanese Immunization Law includes only six vaccines (eight targeted diseases), and the rest of available(More)
The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to antibiotics is an increasing problem. Clindamycin has been used as empiric therapy for the rising incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). As such, the local rate of inducible resistance against clindamycin is an important consideration. This multicenter study was(More)
BACKGROUND The CYP2B6-G516T polymorphism has been shown to alter plasma efavirenz (EFV) concentrations in adults. The impact of CYP2B6-G516T polymorphisms on EFV concentrations may be different in children because of differences in liver maturation and drug dosage. METHODS The CYP2B6-G516T polymorphisms were analyzed in 71 HIV-1-infected children(More)
We previously reported that 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (didanosine, or ddI) significantly altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children who had undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA for more than 2 years while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. This research examines(More)
We report a case of myelomeningocele in an infant whose mother was exposed to efavirenz during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy. Although the true risk for myelomeningocele with the use of efavirenz early in pregnancy is still unknown, the findings in humans are consistent with those observed in primates and suggest that efavirenz is a potent teratogen.(More)