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The posterior parietal cortex is included in the dorsal cortical visual pathway underlying the three-dimensional (3-D) visual recognition of space and objects. The neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) respond visually to the three-dimensional objects, whereas those in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) respond to hand movements to grasp them.(More)
Vesl-1S (186 amino acids, also called Homer) is a protein containing EVH1- and PDZ-like domains whose expression in the hippocampus is regulated during long term potentiation (LTP), one form of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie memory formation (Kato, A., Ozawa, F., Saitoh, Y., Hirai, K., and Inokuchi, K. (1997) FEBS Lett. 412, 183-189; Brakeman, P.(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most excitatory signaling in the brain and are composed of GluR principal subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits. Previous studies identified four mammalian TARPs, gamma-2 (or stargazin), gamma-3, gamma-4, and gamma-8, that control AMPA receptor trafficking, gating,(More)
In the visual system, the establishment of the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes in the retina and tectum during development is important for topographic retinotectal projection. We identified chick Ventroptin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), which is mainly expressed in the ventral retina, not only with a ventral high-dorsal low(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, the mutation in ERECTA is known to confer a compact inflorescence by a reduction in the lengths of internodes and pedicels. We analyzed the expression pattern of this gene during plant development. In situ hybridization and histochemical analysis using transgenic plants carrying chimeric gene fusions, with the ERECTA(More)
Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are the first identified auxiliary subunits for a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Although initial studies found that stargazin, the prototypical TARP, principally chaperones AMPA receptors, subsequent research demonstrated that it also regulates AMPA receptor kinetics and synaptic waveforms.(More)
We have isolated a novel cDNA, vesl, that was induced during convulsive seizure in the rat hippocampus. The vesl gene encodes a protein of 186 amino acids that has significant homology to the EVH1 domain of the VASP/Ena family of proteins implicated in the control of microfilament dynamics. The expression of vesl mRNA was induced in the granule cell layer(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) play major roles in excitatory synaptic transmission. Neuronal AMPA receptors comprise GluR subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Previous studies identified five mammalian TARPs, gamma-2 (or stargazin), gamma-3, gamma-4, gamma-7, and gamma-8, that enhance AMPA receptor function. Here, we(More)
The extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) is the largest region of NMDA receptors; however, biological roles for this ectodomain remain unknown. Here, we determined that the F-box protein, Fbx2, bound to high-mannose glycans of the NR1 ectodomain. F-box proteins specify ubiquitination by linking protein substrates to the terminal E3 ligase. Indeed,(More)
Event-related desynchronization (ERD) within the alpha and beta bands on unilateral index finger extension and hand grasping was investigated on six normal volunteers with magnetoencephalography (MEG). A novel spatial filtering technique for imaging cortical source power, synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM), was employed for the tomographic demonstration(More)