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There is a growing international concern that commonly used environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt the development and functioning of the reproductive system in amphibians. One such chemical of interests is the herbicide atrazine. Effects of atrazine on sex differentiation were studied using wild-type Xenopus laevis tadpoles and all-ZZ(More)
In this study we investigated the morphology and pairing behavior of sex lampbrush chromosomes of XX and ZW females ofRana rugosa from five localities in Japan. Whereas lampbrush chromosomes of XX females from Hiroshima and Isehara had subterminally located centromeres and showed remarkable similarity, those of XX females from Hamakita had the centromeres(More)
The thyroid hormone-disrupting activity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a flame retardant, and related compounds was examined. TBBPA, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), tetramethylbisphenol A (TMBPA) and 3,3'-dimethylbisphenol A (DMBPA) markedly inhibited the binding of triiodothyronine (T3; 1 x 10(-10) M) to thyroid hormone receptor in the concentration(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major factors that induce oxidative modification of DNA and gene mutation. ROS can elicit oxidative stress and affect a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes including embryonal development, maturation and aging.
Amphibian body skin provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanism of thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent organ remodeling during metamorphosis. Global gene expression changes in the TH-dependent body skin remodeling were studied with microarray analysis. We identified 401 genes that were differentially expressed more than fourfold for 7 days(More)
To clarify the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aging process of amphibians, antioxidant enzyme activity and indexes of ROS damage were investigated biochemically using the livers of 3- and 10-year-old Rana nigromaculata frog males and females. Findings revealed no significant difference in survival rate between males and females. Antioxidant(More)
Regression of the tadpole tail through muscule cell apoptosis is one of the most spectacular events in amphibian metamorphosis. Accumulated evidence has shown that mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptosis. Previously we reported that cyclosporin A (CsA) suppressed 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3))-induced(More)
Recently, gene editing with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has been used in the life sciences. TALENs can be easily customized to recognize a specific DNA sequence and efficiently introduce double-strand breaks at the targeted genomic locus. Subsequent non-homologous end-joining repair leads to targeted gene disruption by base(More)
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have been extensively used in genome editing in various organisms. In some cases, however, it is difficult to efficiently disrupt both paralogous genes using a single pair of TALENs in Xenopus laevis because of its polyploidy. Here, we report targeted mutagenesis of multiple and paralogous genes using(More)
Studies using amphibians have contributed to the progress of life science including developmental biology and cell biology for more than one hundred years. Since the 1950s Xenopus laevis in particular has been used by scientists in many fields for experiments, resulting in the development of various techniques such as microsurgery on early embryos,(More)