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In order to explain the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction, it is crucial to know the distribution of the sarcomere compliance of active muscle. Here, we directly measure the stiffness of single actin filaments with and without tropomyosin, using a recently developed technique for nanomanipulation of single actin filaments with microneedles. The(More)
We have developed a new technique for measurements of piconewton forces and nanometer displacements in the millisecond time range caused by actin-myosin interaction in vitro by manipulating single actin filaments with a glass microneedle. Here, we describe in full the details of this method. Using this method, the elementary events in energy transduction by(More)
Knowledge of the elastic properties of actin filaments is crucial for considering its role in muscle contraction, cellular motile events, and formation of cell shape. The stiffness of actin filaments in the directions of stretching and bending has been determined. In this study, we have directly determined the torsional rigidity and breaking force of single(More)
Endoplasmic streaming of characean cells of Nitella or Chara is known to be in the range 30-100 microm/second. The Chara myosin extracted from the cells and fixed onto a glass surface was found to move muscle actin filaments at a velocity of 60 microm/second. This is ten times faster than that of skeletal muscle myosin (myosin II). In this study, the(More)
Displacements of single one-headed myosin molecules in a sparse myosin-rod cofilament were measured from bead displacements at various angles relative to an actin filament by dual optical trapping nanometry. The sparse myosin-rod cofilaments, 5-8 micron long, were synthesized by slowly mixing one-headed myosin prepared by papain digestion with myosin rods(More)
We have developed a technique that allows mechanical and ligand-binding events in a single myosin molecule to be monitored simultaneously. We describe how steps in the ATPase reaction are temporally related to mechanical events at the single molecule level. The results show that the force generation does not always coincide with the release of bound(More)
The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments that propel many species of swimming bacteria. The rotor is a set of rings up to 45 nm in diameter in the cytoplasmic membrane; the stator contains about ten torque-generating units anchored to the cell wall at the perimeter of the rotor. The free-energy source(More)
The elementary events in energy transduction by the actomyosin motor, driven by ATP hydrolysis, were directly recorded from multiple and single molecules using a recently developed technique for nano-manipulation of single actin filaments by a microneedle. In order to avoid the effects of random orientation of myosin and association of myosin with an(More)
To understand the underlying mechanism of force generation by myosin motor, it is crucial to know which part of the molecule is essential for the process. Recent structure determination of myosin motor domain at atomic resolution has revealed that the domain comprises two smaller domains, the "ATPase domain" consisting of only an N-terminal segment of the(More)
PomA, a homolog of MotA in the H+-driven flagellar motor, is an essential component for torque generation in the Na+-driven flagellar motor. Previous studies suggested that two charged residues, R90 and E98, which are in the single cytoplasmic loop of MotA, are directly involved in this process. These residues are conserved in PomA of Vibrio alginolyticus(More)