Akihiko Ishihara

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Moving cells display a variety of shapes and modes of locomotion, but it is not clear how motility at the molecular level relates to the locomotion of a whole cell, a problem compounded in studies of cells with complex shapes. A striking feature of fish epidermal keratocyte locomotion is its apparent simplicity. Here we present a kinematic description of(More)
The cytoskeletal activity of motile or adherent cells is frequently seen to induce detectable displacements of sufficiently compliant substrata. The physics of this phenomenon is discussed in terms of the classical theory of small-strain, plane-stress elasticity. The main results of such analysis is a transform expressing the displacement field of the(More)
Traction forces produced by moving fibroblasts have been observed as distortions in flexible substrata including wrinkling of thin, silicone rubber films. Traction forces generated by fibroblast lamellae were thought to represent the forces required to move the cell forwards. However, traction forces could not be detected with faster moving cell types such(More)
Membrane protein lateral diffusion can be constrained in several ways: Diffusion can be slower than that predicted for a simple, fluid lipid bilayer; diffusion can be confined to certain regions within the total membrane; and diffusion may not be equally probable in all directions, i.e. it may be anisotropic. We know that protein diffusion is reduced by(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) elicits food intake through the action of hypothalamic G-protein-coupled receptors. Previous publications indicate that the Y5 receptor may represent one of these postulated hypothalamic "feeding" receptors. Using a potent and orally available Y5 antagonist L-152,804, we evaluated the involvement of the Y5 receptor in feeding(More)
Nanovid (video-enhanced) microscopy was used to determine whether lateral diffusion in the plasma membrane of colloidal gold-tagged lipid molecules is confined or is unrestricted. Confinement could be produced by domains within the plane of the plasma membrane or by filamentous barriers within the pericellular matrix. Fluorescein-phosphatidylethanolamine(More)
An original method to induce heat stress was used to clarify the time course of changes in heat shock proteins (HSPs) in rat skeletal muscles during recovery after a single bout of heat stress. One hindlimb was inserted into a stainless steel can and directly heated by raising the air temperature inside the can via a flexible heater twisted around the steel(More)
The effects of mechanical unloading and reloading on the properties of rat soleus muscle fibers were investigated in male Wistar Hannover rats. Satellite cells in the fibers of control rats were distributed evenly throughout the fiber length. After 16 days of hindlimb unloading, the number of satellite cells in the central, but not the proximal or distal,(More)
There have been no systematic comparisons of skeletal muscle adaptations in response to voluntary wheel running under controlled loading conditions. To accomplish this, a voluntary running wheel for rats and mice was developed in which a known load can be controlled and monitored electronically. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 rats/group) were(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a 19-aa cyclic neuropeptide originally isolated from chum salmon pituitaries. Besides its effects on the aggregation of melanophores in fish several lines of evidence suggest that in mammals MCH functions as a regulator of energy homeostasis. Recently, several groups reported the identification of an orphan G(More)