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OBJECTIVE Hyperuricemia is common in patients with metabolic syndrome. We investigated the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in atherosclerosis development, and the effects of the XOR inhibitor allopurinol on this process. METHODS AND RESULTS Oral administration of allopurinol to ApoE knockout mice markedly ameliorated lipid accumulation and(More)
Hyperuricemia have been thought to be caused by the ingestion of large amounts of purines, and prevention or treatment of hyperuricemia has intended to prevent gout. Xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) is rate-limiting enzyme of uric acid generation, and allopurinol was developed as a uric acid (UA) generation inhibitor in the 1950s and has(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION To investigate trends over the past 20 years for the prevalence of obesity and glycemic control in association with a patient's first hospital visit for type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a historical, cross-sectional, time-series, single-center study carried out at Marunouchi Hospital. Data from type 2 diabetic(More)
OBJECTIVE Resistin-like molecule (RELM) β is a secretory protein homologous to resistin and reportedly contributes to local immune response regulation in gut and bronchial epithelial cells. However, we found that activated macrophages also express RELMβ and thus investigated the role of RELMβ in the development of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS It(More)
To elucidate the role of AMPK in hepatic glucose metabolism, dominant negative (DN), constitutively active (CA) forms of the AMPKalpha1 subunit and control vector LacZ were overexpressed by means of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Five days after virus injection, hepatic AMPK activity was five-fold higher in CA mice than in DN mice. DN mice were(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation reportedly suppresses transcriptional activity of the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase C (PEPCK-C) promoter and reduces hepatic PEPCK-C expression. Although a previous study found TORC2 phosphorylation to be involved in the suppression of AMPK-mediated CRE transcriptional(More)
Chronic low-grade infection has been suggested to be associated with metabolic disorder such as diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this important association is largely unknown. The only clue established so far is that many subjects exhibit elevated levels of C-reactive protein as measured by highly sensitive assay. Here, we hypothesized(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Resistin and the resistin-like molecules (RELMs) comprise a novel class of cysteine-rich proteins. Among the RELMs, RELMbeta and RELMgamma are produced in non-adipocyte tissues, but the regulation of their expression and their physiological roles are largely unknown. We investigated in mice the tissue distribution and dimer formation of(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Oxidative stress is associated with diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance is implicated in the development of these disorders. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress induces insulin resistance in rats, and endeavoured to identify mechanisms linking the two. METHODS Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor(More)
Resistin and resistin-like molecules (RELMs) are a family of proteins reportedly related to insulin resistance and inflammation. Because the serum concentration and intestinal expression level of RELMbeta were elevated in insulin-resistant rodent models, in this study we investigated the effect of RELMbeta on insulin signaling and metabolism using(More)