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Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) has been reported to block cardiomyocyte differentiation. However, at which stage PI3-kinase plays this important role and what its molecular targets are remain unknown. To answer these questions, we induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19CL6 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells and investigated the(More)
Here, a new theory of molecular phylogeny is developed in a multidimensional vector space (MVS). The molecular evolution is represented as a successive splitting of branch vectors in the MVS. The end points of these vectors are the extant species and indicate the specific directions reflected by their individual histories of evolution in the past. This(More)
Sonochemically prepared Pt, Au and Pd nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto TiO2 with the assistance of prolonged sonication. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated in H2 production from aqueous ethanol solutions. Beside the sonochemical method, the conventional impregnation method was also employed to prepare photocatalysts. The(More)
Aqueous sample solutions containing noble metal ions (HAuCl4, Na2PdCl4, H2PtCl6), polyethyleneglycol monostearate, and magnetic maghemite nanoparticles were irradiated with high power ultrasound. Analyses of the products showed that noble metal ions were reduced by the effects of ultrasound, and the formed noble metal nanoparticles were uniformly(More)
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