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Afadin is an actin filament-binding protein that binds to nectin, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, and is colocalized with nectin at cadherin-based cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs). To explore the function of afadin in cell-cell adhesion during embryogenesis, we generated afadin(-/-) mice and embryonic stem cells. In wild-type mice at(More)
Alzheimer's disease is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function. gamma-secretase dysfunction is evident in many cases of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism by which gamma-secretase dysfunction results in memory loss and neurodegeneration is not fully(More)
The Rho small G protein family members regulate various actin cytoskeleton-dependent cell functions. The Rho GDI (GDP dissociation inhibitor) family, consisting of Rho GDIalpha, -beta, and -gamma, is a regulator that keeps the Rho family members in the cytosol as the GDP-bound inactive form and translocates the GDP-bound form from the membranes to the(More)
The Rab3 small G protein family consists of four members, Rab3A, -3B, -3C, and -3D. Of these members, Rab3A regulates Ca(2+)-dependent neurotransmitter release. These small G proteins are activated by Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein (Rab3 GEP). To determine the function of Rab3 GEP during neurotransmitter release, we have knocked out Rab3 GEP in mice. Rab3(More)
A growing body of evidence suggests that phosphatidylserine (PS) oxidation is linked with its transmembrane migration from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane during apoptosis. However, there is no direct evidence for the presence of oxidized PS (PSox) on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. The present study was performed to detect(More)
Loss of synapses is associated with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this synaptic impairment is not well understood. EphA4 is a substrate of γ-secretase, and the γ-secretase-cleaved EphA4 intracellular domain (EICD) is known to enhance the formation of dendritic spines via activation of the Rac(More)
Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (Rab GDIalpha) is a regulator of the Rab small G proteins implicated in neurotransmission, and mutations of Rab GDIalpha cause human X-linked mental retardation associated with epileptic seizures. In Rab GDIalpha-deficient mice, synaptic potentials in the CA1 region of the hippocampus displayed larger enhancement during(More)
1-Oleoyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces transmonolayer migration (in vitro invasion) of rat ascites hepatoma MM1 cells and their morphological changes leading to the migration. We have previously shown that an LPA analog, palmitoyl cyclic phosphatidic acid (Pal-cPA), suppresses transmonolayer migration of MM1 cells by rapidly increasing the(More)
The neuronal network is tightly regulated by a large variety of locally connected GABAergic neurons. Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) and its receptor ErbB4 are master regulators in the morphological and functional development of excitatory synapses in GABAergic neurons. We previously showed that the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, nectin-like molecule-2(More)