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In this investigation, we obtained data that support the hypothesis that afferent signals associated with hip flexion play a role in initiating the swing-to-stance transition of the hind legs in walking cats. Direct evidence came from observations in walking decerebrate cats. Assisting the flexion of the hip joint during swing advanced the onset of activity(More)
To gain insight into the mechanism of coordination of stepping in the fore and hind legs of quadrupeds, we examined the kinematics of leg movements and the motor patterns in fore and hind leg flexor muscles in decerebrate walking cats when the two pairs of legs stepped on separate treadmills running at different speeds. When the front treadmill was slowed(More)
This study explored how the normally quadrupedal Japanese monkey adjusts to treadmill perturbations, when trained to walk bipedally. The monkey was required to use the left hindlimb to clear an obstacle that was fixed on the left side of a treadmill belt. The monkey either cleared the obstacle (CL: cleared locomotion), or stumbled over it (SL: stumbled(More)
In walking cats, the biarticular medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG-LG) muscles act to produce extension and flexion torques at the ankle and knee, respectively, and they usually display only one burst of activity beginning just before ground contact and ending near the end of the stance phase. Currently, the MG-LG muscles are considered to function(More)
Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present(More)
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