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To construct high-quality 16S rDNA clone libraries for microbial communities associated with Porphyra yezoensis and to minimize the detection of rDNA from leafy gametophytes of P. yezoensis, we designed a new 16S rDNA universal primer (75F). Of the clones prepared using 75F, which was designed to distinguish between bacteria and P. yezoensis, 95% were(More)
Elevated concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6Ralpha) in synovial fluid have been implicated in joint cartilage destruction. We examined the effect of IL-6 and sIL-6Ralpha on cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, and the expression of Sox-9, type II collagen, aggrecan core, link protein, BMP-7, and BMP(More)
Cytokines released at sites of inflammation and infection can alter the normal processes of cartilage turnover, resulting in pathologic destruction or formation. Interleukin (IL)-1beta plays a central role in the pathophysiology of cartilage damage and degradation in arthritis. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-1beta on the expression of(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) E(2), which exerts its actions via the PG receptors EP1-4, is produced from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which interleukin (IL)-1beta induces the expression of PG receptors in cultured human chondrocytes and to explore the role of PGE(2) in this process.(More)
Elevated interleukin (IL)-1 concentrations in synovial fluid have been implicated in joint bone and cartilage destruction. Previously, we showed that IL-1beta stimulated the expression of prostaglandin (PG) receptor EP4 via increased PGE(2) production. However, the effect of IL-1beta on osteoclast formation via chondrocytes is unclear. Therefore, we(More)
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