Akhlaq A. Farooqui

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Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the name for the class of lipolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the acyl group from the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids, generating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The products of the PLA2-catalyzed reaction can potentially act as second messengers themselves, or be further metabolized to eicosanoids, platelet-activating(More)
Three enzyme systems, cyclooxygenases that generate prostaglandins, lipoxygenases that form hydroxy derivatives and leukotrienes, and epoxygenases that give rise to epoxyeicosatrienoic products, metabolize arachidonic acid after its release from neural membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A(2). Lysophospholipids, the other products of(More)
The phospholipase A(2) family includes secretory phospholipase A(2), cytosolic phospholipase A(2), plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A(2), and calcium-independent phospholipase A(2). It is generally thought that the release of arachidonic acid by cytosolic phospholipase A(2) is the rate-limiting step in the generation of eicosanoids and platelet(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) generates arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and lysophospholipids from neural membrane phospholipids. These metabolites have a variety of physiological effects by themselves and also are substrates for the synthesis of more potent lipid mediators such as eicosanoids, platelet activating factor, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). At(More)
Neuroinflammation is a host defense mechanism associated with neutralization of an insult and restoration of normal structure and function of brain. Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of all major CNS diseases. The main mediators of neuroinflammation are microglial cells. These cells are activated during a CNS injury. Microglial cells initiate a rapid response(More)
Plasmalogens are unique glycerophospholipids because they have an enol ether double bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone. They are found in all mammalian tissues, with ethanolamine plasmalogens 10-fold higher than choline plasmalogens except in muscles. The enol ether double bond at the sn-1 position makes plasmalogens more susceptible to(More)
The systemic administration of kainate (10 mg/ml) into adult Wistar rats produces seizures and neurodegeneration. We have studied the effect of kainate administration on cPLA2 and COX-2 immunoreactivities after 3 days and 1, 2, 4 and 11 weeks. The cPLA2 immunoreactivity was increased in hippocampal neurons at 1 and 3 days after kainate injection suggesting(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in mammalian cells through enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms. Although some ROS production pathways are needed for specific physiological functions, excessive production is detrimental and is regarded as the basis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Among enzymes producing superoxide anions, NADPH oxidase is(More)
Neural membranes contain several classes of glycerophospholipids which turnover at different rates with respect to their structure and localization in different cells and membranes. The glycerophospholipid composition of neural membranes greatly alters their functional efficacy. The length of glycerophospholipid acyl chain and the degree of saturation are(More)
Intracellular phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a diverse group of enzymes with a growing number of members. These enzymes hydrolyze membrane phospholipids into fatty acid and lysophospholipids. These lipid products may serve as intracellular second messengers or can be further metabolized to potent inflammatory mediators, such as eicosanoids and(More)