Akeo Shinkai

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CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that provides sequence-specific defense against foreign nucleic acids. Here we report the structure and function of the effector complex of the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Thermus thermophilus: the Csm complex (TtCsm). TtCsm is composed of five different protein subunits (Csm1-Csm5) with an uneven(More)
The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtCmr complex copurifies with crRNA species of 40 and 46 nt,(More)
DNA binding proteins are essential in all organisms, and they play important roles in both compacting and regulating the genetic material. All thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea encode one or more copies of Alba or Sso10b, which is a small, abundant, basic protein that binds DNA. Here, we present the crystal structure of Ape10b2 from Aeropyrum(More)
IL-4 has been shown to be involved in the accumulation of leukocytes, especially eosinophils, at sites of inflammation by acting on vascular endothelial cells. To identify novel molecules involved in the IL-4-dependent eosinophil extravasation, cDNA prepared from HUVEC stimulated with IL-4 was subjected to differential display analysis, which revealed a(More)
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems composed of DNA direct repeats designated as CRISPRs and several CRISPR-associated (cas) genes, which are present in many prokaryotic genomes, make up a host defense system against invading foreign replicons such as phages. In order to investigate the altered expression profiles(More)
Size exclusion chromatography of the cytosolic fraction of SecA-overproducing cells of Escherichia coli suggested that SecA, an essential component of the secretory machinery, exists as an oligomer. The subunit structure of SecA was then studied using a purified specimen. Estimation of the molecular mass by means of ultracentrifugation and chemical(More)
Genome analyses have revealed that members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators are widely distributed among prokaryotes, including both bacteria and archaea. These regulatory proteins are involved in cellular metabolism in both global and specific manners, depending on the availability of the exogenous amino acid effectors. Here we report(More)
The lipase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was randomly mutated by error-prone PCR to obtain thermostable mutants, followed by screening for thermostable mutant lipases. Out of about 2,600 transformants, four thermostable clones were obtained. Their nucleotide sequences showed that they had two or three amino acid substitutions. Analysis of the thermal(More)
Interactions between SecA and cellular components involved in the translocation of secretory proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli were studied by examining changes in the sensitivity of SecA to staphylococcal protease V8. In the presence of ATP, the amino-terminal 95-kDa portion of the SecA molecule became highly resistant to V8(More)