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CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that provides sequence-specific defense against foreign nucleic acids. Here we report the structure and function of the effector complex of the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Thermus thermophilus: the Csm complex (TtCsm). TtCsm is composed of five different protein subunits (Csm1-Csm5) with an uneven(More)
D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase (Ddl) is one of the key enzymes in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and is an important target for drug discovery. The enzyme catalyzes the condensation of two D-Ala molecules using ATP to produce D-Ala-D-Ala, which is the terminal peptide of a peptidoglycan monomer. The structures of five forms of the enzyme from Thermus thermophilus(More)
Interactions between SecA and cellular components involved in the translocation of secretory proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli were studied by examining changes in the sensitivity of SecA to staphylococcal protease V8. In the presence of ATP, the amino-terminal 95-kDa portion of the SecA molecule became highly resistant to V8(More)
IL-4 has been shown to be involved in the accumulation of leukocytes, especially eosinophils, at sites of inflammation by acting on vascular endothelial cells. To identify novel molecules involved in the IL-4-dependent eosinophil extravasation, cDNA prepared from HUVEC stimulated with IL-4 was subjected to differential display analysis, which revealed a(More)
Adaptive immunity in bacteria involves RNA-guided surveillance complexes that use CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated (Cas) proteins together with CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to target invasive nucleic acids for degradation. Whereas type I and type II CRISPR-Cas surveillance complexes target double-stranded DNA, type III(More)
Genome analyses have revealed that members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators are widely distributed among prokaryotes, including both bacteria and archaea. These regulatory proteins are involved in cellular metabolism in both global and specific manners, depending on the availability of the exogenous amino acid effectors. Here we report(More)
The stand-alone RAM (regulation of amino-acid metabolism) domain protein SraA from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TTHA0845) was crystallized in the presence of zinc ions. The X-ray crystal structure was determined using a multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique and was refined at 2.4 A resolution to a final R factor of 25.0%. The monomeric structure(More)
Size exclusion chromatography of the cytosolic fraction of SecA-overproducing cells of Escherichia coli suggested that SecA, an essential component of the secretory machinery, exists as an oligomer. The subunit structure of SecA was then studied using a purified specimen. Estimation of the molecular mass by means of ultracentrifugation and chemical(More)
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems composed of DNA direct repeats designated as CRISPRs and several CRISPR-associated (cas) genes, which are present in many prokaryotic genomes, make up a host defense system against invading foreign replicons such as phages. In order to investigate the altered expression profiles(More)
The putative amino acid sequence from the wild-type Bacillus subtilis div+ gene, which complements the temperature-sensitive div-341 mutation, shares a 50% identity with the sequence from Escherichia coli secA (Y. Sadaie, H. Takamatsu, K. Nakamura, and K. Yamane, Gene 98:101-105, 1991). The B. subtilis div-341 mutant accumulated the precursor proteins of(More)