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CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that provides sequence-specific defense against foreign nucleic acids. Here we report the structure and function of the effector complex of the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Thermus thermophilus: the Csm complex (TtCsm). TtCsm is composed of five different protein subunits (Csm1-Csm5) with an uneven(More)
The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtCmr complex copurifies with crRNA species of 40 and 46 nt,(More)
IL-4 has been shown to be involved in the accumulation of leukocytes, especially eosinophils, at sites of inflammation by acting on vascular endothelial cells. To identify novel molecules involved in the IL-4-dependent eosinophil extravasation, cDNA prepared from HUVEC stimulated with IL-4 was subjected to differential display analysis, which revealed a(More)
The lipase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was randomly mutated by error-prone PCR to obtain thermostable mutants, followed by screening for thermostable mutant lipases. Out of about 2,600 transformants, four thermostable clones were obtained. Their nucleotide sequences showed that they had two or three amino acid substitutions. Analysis of the thermal(More)
D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase (Ddl) is one of the key enzymes in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and is an important target for drug discovery. The enzyme catalyzes the condensation of two D-Ala molecules using ATP to produce D-Ala-D-Ala, which is the terminal peptide of a peptidoglycan monomer. The structures of five forms of the enzyme from Thermus thermophilus(More)
Adaptive immunity in bacteria involves RNA-guided surveillance complexes that use CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated (Cas) proteins together with CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to target invasive nucleic acids for degradation. Whereas type I and type II CRISPR-Cas surveillance complexes target double-stranded DNA, type III(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor, is believed to be a potent mediator of peritoneal fluid accumulation and angiogenesis and of tumor growth in ascites tumor. Such roles, however, have not been generally established because of insufficient quantitative and systemic analyses. To address this, we examined(More)
Size exclusion chromatography of the cytosolic fraction of SecA-overproducing cells of Escherichia coli suggested that SecA, an essential component of the secretory machinery, exists as an oligomer. The subunit structure of SecA was then studied using a purified specimen. Estimation of the molecular mass by means of ultracentrifugation and chemical(More)
Interactions between SecA and cellular components involved in the translocation of secretory proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli were studied by examining changes in the sensitivity of SecA to staphylococcal protease V8. In the presence of ATP, the amino-terminal 95-kDa portion of the SecA molecule became highly resistant to V8(More)
Genome analyses have revealed that members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators are widely distributed among prokaryotes, including both bacteria and archaea. These regulatory proteins are involved in cellular metabolism in both global and specific manners, depending on the availability of the exogenous amino acid effectors. Here we report(More)