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The estimated incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 181 per 100,000; however, there is limited information on Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in the country. We studied 314 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates; of these, 197 (63%) isolates grouped into 22 different clusters, while 119 (37%) had unique spoligotypes. Eighty-nine percent of(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 181/100,000 population. However, information about transmission and geographical prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their evolutionary genetics as well as drug resistance remains limited. Our objective was to determine the clonal composition, evolutionary genetics and drug resistance(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis causes 3 million deaths annually. The most common site of tuberculosis is pulmonary however; extra-pulmonary forms of the disease also remain prevalent. Restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on effective recruitment and subsequent activation of T lymphocytes, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells to the site of(More)
Pakistan ranks eighth in terms of tuberculosis burden worldwide, with an incidence of 181/100000. The predominant genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reported to be the Central Asian strain 1 (CAS1) and Beijing families.Mycobacteriumtuberculosis down-regulates host pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are essential for protection against infection.(More)
INTRODUCTION Central Asian Strain 1 (CAS1) is the predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype in Pakistan. The occurrence of deletions in regions of differences (RDs) among CAS1 and other predominant genogroups in the country were investigated. METHODOLOGY Using stratified random sampling, 235 M. tuberculosis (185 pulmonary; 50 extrapulmonary) strains(More)
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF(More)
Arboviral diseases are expanding worldwide, yet global surveillance is often limited due to diplomatic and cultural barriers between nations. With human encroachment into new habitats, mosquito-borne viruses are also invading new areas. The actual prevalence of expanding arboviruses is unknown in Pakistan due to inappropriate diagnosis and poor testing for(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PE_PGRS genes belong to the PE multigene family. Although the function of PE_PGRS genes is unknown, it is hypothesized that the PE_PGRS genes may be associated with antigenic variability in MTB. MATERIAL AND METHODS Whole genome sequencing analysis was performed on (n=37) extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB(More)
Central Asian Strain 1 (CAS1) is the prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis genogroup in South Asia. CAS1 strains carry deletions in RD149 and RD152 regions. Significance of these deletions is as yet unknown. We compared CAS1 strains with RD149 and concurrent RD149-RD152 deletions with CAS1 strains without deletions and with the laboratory reference strain,(More)