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The first chordates appear in the fossil record at the time of the Cambrian explosion, nearly 550 million years ago. The modern ascidian tadpole represents a plausible approximation to these ancestral chordates. To illuminate the origins of chordate and vertebrates, we generated a draft of the protein-coding portion of the genome of the most studied(More)
Cellular proliferation, and differentiation of cells in response to extracellular signals, are controlled by the signal transduction pathway of Ras, Raf and MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase. The mechanisms that regulate this pathway are not well known. Here we describe two structurally similar tyrosine kinase substrates, Spred-1 and Spred-2. These two(More)
It has been shown that interferons (IFNs) exert their signals through receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). However, molecular mechanism of regulation of IFN signaling has not been fully understood. We have reported novel cytokine-inducible SH2 protein (CIS) and JAK binding protein (JAB)(More)
Following the reading of its draft genome sequence and the collection of a large quantity of cDNA information, Ciona intestinalis is now becoming a model organism for whole-genome analyses of the expression and function of developmentally relevant genes. Although most studies have focused on larval structures, the development of the adult form is also very(More)
Acorn worms, also known as enteropneust (literally, 'gut-breathing') hemichordates, are marine invertebrates that share features with echinoderms and chordates. Together, these three phyla comprise the deuterostomes. Here we report the draft genome sequences of two acorn worms, Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Ptychodera flava. By comparing them with diverse(More)
When the body of P. flava is severed, the animal has the ability to regenerate its missing anterior or posterior as appropriate. We have focused on anterior regeneration when the head and branchial regions are severed from the body of the worm. After transection, the body wall contracts and heals closed in 2 to 3 days. By the third day a small blastema is(More)
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