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Listeriolysin, the hemolysin of the pathogenic species Listeria monocytogenes, was expressed in the non-pathogenic species Listeria innocua. Coexpression of the positive regulatory factor prfA in the plasmid vector in conjunction with the structural gene hly increased the expression over 500-fold. Purification from supernatant fluids was achieved by two(More)
The expression of all virulence factors in Listeria monocytogenes characterized to date is controlled by the virulence regulator protein, PrfA. To identify further PrfA-regulated proteins, we examined supernatants of L. monocytogenes EGD harboring additional copies of the PrfA regulator for the presence of novel proteins. This led to the identification and(More)
Infection of a murine-spleen dendritic cell line by Listeria monocytogenes was found to induce cell death through apoptosis. To characterize the bacterial product(s) involved in induction of apoptosis, dendritic cells were infected with the L. monocytogenes EGD strain and several isogenic mutants deficient in the production of individual listerial virulence(More)
Thiol-activated cytolysins share a conserved hydrophobic, Trp-rich undecapeptide that is suggested to be involved in membrane binding and intercalation. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody PLY-5 recognizes all members of this toxin family and peptide mapping assigned its epitope to the undecapeptide motif. This antibody inhibited binding of the toxins to(More)
Listeria monocytogenes causes rhombencephalitis in humans and animals and also affects the fetus in utero, causing disseminated sepsis. In both instances, the infection occurs by the crossing of endothelial cells lining a physiological barrier, the blood-brain barrier or the transplacental barrier. In this study, the ability of L. monocytogenes wild-type(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic, food-borne human and animal pathogen. Host cell invasion requires the action of the internalins A (InlA) and B (InlB), which are members of a family of listerial cell-surface proteins. Common to these proteins are three distinctive N-terminal domains that have been shown to direct host cell-specific invasion for(More)
Listeriolysin O (LLO) binds to cholesterol-containing membranes in which it oligomerizes to form pores. Preincubation of the toxin with cholesterol is known to inhibit haemolysis, whereas the oxidized form of cholesterol has no inhibitory effect. Using immunoblot analyses and flow cytometry we demonstrate that preincubation with cholesterol does not(More)
The use of Salmonella for the delivery of plasmid-encoded heterologous antigens to eukaryotic host cells has proven successful in experimental systems, but its general applicability is still hampered by a severe instability of transformants carrying these expression plasmids. To overcome the problem of plasmid instability, new low copy number expression(More)
We have examined the human humoral immune response directed against proteins of Listeria monocytogenes in both healthy individuals and listeriosis patients. Two major targets for an antibody response were found in individuals that did not suffer from listeriosis: listeriolysin (Hly) and the recently described internalin-related protein (IrpA). In contrast,(More)
The property of listeriolysin (LLO) to introduce soluble passenger proteins into the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells allows the induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells against such antigens. To overcome the potential problem of presentation of the immunodominant epitope LL091-99 by H-2Kd, a variant LLO92A was established in which Tyr 92 was replaced by Ala.(More)