Ajit Singh Dhaunchak

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During vertebrate brain development, axons are enwrapped by myelin, an insulating membrane produced by oligodendrocytes. Neuron-derived signaling molecules are temporally and spatially required to coordinate oligodendrocyte differentiation. In this study, we show that neurons regulate myelin membrane trafficking in oligodendrocytes. In the absence of(More)
Mice lacking the expression of proteolipid protein (PLP)/DM20 in oligodendrocytes provide a genuine model for spastic paraplegia (SPG-2). Their axons are well myelinated but exhibit impaired axonal transport and progressive degeneration, which is difficult to attribute to the absence of a single myelin protein. We hypothesized that secondary molecular(More)
A large number of genetic diseases have been associated with truncated or misfolded membrane proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the ER, they activate the unfolded protein response, which can trigger cell death. Hence, a better understanding of protein misfolding features might help in developing novel therapies. Here, we have studied the(More)
Classical cadherins, which are adhesion molecules functioning at the CNS synapse, are synthesized as adhesively inactive precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Signal sequence and prodomain cleavage in the ER and Golgi apparatus, respectively, activates their adhesive properties. Here, we provide the first evidence for sorting of nonadhesive(More)
Clinical trial results demonstrating that B-cell depletion substantially reduces new relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have established that B cells play a role in the pathophysiology of MS relapses. The same treatment appears not to impact antibodies directed against the central nervous system, which underscores the contribution of(More)
Compact myelin, the paranode, and the juxtaparanode are discrete domains that are formed on myelinated axons. In humans, neurological disorders associated with loss of myelin, including Multiple Sclerosis, often also result in disassembly of the node of Ranvier. Despite the importance of these domains in the proper functioning of the CNS, their molecular(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from children during initial presentation of central nervous system inflammation, who may or may not subsequently be diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS), were subjected to large-scale proteomics screening. Unexpectedly, major compact myelin membrane proteins typically implicated in MS were not detected. However,(More)
To understand the molecular anatomy of myelin membranes, we performed a large-scale, liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based lipidome and proteome screen on freshly purified human and murine myelin fractions. We identified more than 700 lipid moieties and above 1,000 proteins in the two species, including 284 common lipids(More)
MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate diverse molecular and cellular processes including oligodendrocyte (OL) precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and differentiation in rodents. However, the role of miRs in human OPCs is poorly understood. To identify miRs that may regulate these processes in humans, we isolated OL lineage cells from human white matter and analyzed(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by central nervous system (CNS) demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although the cause of MS is still unknown, it is widely accepted that novel drug targets need to focus on both decreasing inflammation and promoting CNS repair. In MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,(More)