Ajit A. Kulkarni

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Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive scarring disease with no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is up-regulated in fibrotic diseases, where it stimulates differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and production of excess extracellular matrix. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a transcription factor(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) induced differentiation of human lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key event in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Although the typical TGFβ signaling pathway involves the Smad family of transcription factors, we have previously reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands(More)
Pulmonary Fibrosis (PF) is a devastating progressive disease in which normal lung structure and function is compromised by scarring. Lung fibrosis can be caused by thoracic radiation, injury from chemotherapy and systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis that involve inflammatory responses. CDDO-Me (Methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)dien-28-oate,(More)
RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. OBJECTIVES This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS We(More)
Corneal scarring, whether caused by trauma, laser refractive surgery, or infection, remains a significant problem for humans. Certain ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) have shown promise as antiscarring agents in a variety of body tissues. In the cornea, their relative effectiveness and mechanisms of action are still(More)
Fibrosis can occur in any human tissue when the normal wound healing response is amplified. Such amplification results in fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Occurrence of these sequelae in organs such as the eye or lung can result in severe consequences to health. Unfortunately, medical(More)
RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly progressive disease with few treatment options. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein, but its function in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine the role of TG2 in pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS The fibrotic response to bleomycin was compared between wild-type and(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive fibrotic destruction of normal lung architecture. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, new treatment approaches are needed. We previously identified transglutaminase (TG)2, a multifunctional protein expressed by human lung fibroblasts (HLFs), as a positive driver of fibrosis. TG2(More)
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is a nuclear hormone receptor that is activated by multiple agonists including thiazolidinediones, prostaglandins, and synthetic oleanolic acids. Many PPARγ ligands are under investigation as potential therapies for human diseases. These ligands modulate multiple cellular pathways via both PPARγ-dependent(More)
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