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Owners of husiness groups are oflen accused of expropriating minority shareholders hy tunneling resources from firms where they have low cash flow rights to firms where they have high cash flow rights. In this paper we propose a general methodology to measure the extent of tunneling activities. The methodology rests on isolating and then testing the(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of adherent epithelial cells to a migratory mesenchymal state has been implicated in tumor metastasis in preclinical models. To investigate its role in human cancer, we characterized EMT in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from breast cancer patients. Rare primary tumor cells simultaneously expressed mesenchymal and(More)
Rationale: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of key metabolic, inflamma-tory, and antiangiogenic pathways in type 2 diabetes (DM) and may contribute to common disease complications. Objective: In this study, we explore plasma miRNA profiles in patients with DM. prevalent DM, but a modest increase of miR-28-3p. Findings(More)
Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Only one moderately effective therapy exists, albeit with contraindications that exclude 90% of the patients. This medical need contrasts with a high failure rate of more than 1,000 pre-clinical drug candidates for stroke therapies. Thus, there is a need for translatable mechanisms of(More)
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a key regulatory protein in cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation, linking Ca(2+)-troponin C binding with activation of crossbridge reactions with the thin filament. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that myofilament properties as well as changes in intracellular Ca(2+) have a major role in the dynamic(More)
Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and an increase in oxidative stress are both implicated in age-related cardiac remodeling but their precise interrelationship and linkage to underlying molecular and cellular abnormalities remain to be defined. Recent studies indicate that NADPH oxidases are major sources of oxidative(More)
Black Africans have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease than white Europeans. We explored potential mechanisms of this excess risk by assessing endothelium function, inflammatory status (C-reactive protein), oxidative stress (isoprostane-F2alpha), and plasma asymmetrical dimethyl arginine (ADMA; an endogenous competitive inhibitor of NO synthase)(More)
Proliferation of adipocyte precursors and their differentiation into mature adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity in mammals. IGF-I is a potent mitogen and important stimulus for adipocyte differentiation. The biological actions of IGFs are closely regulated by a family of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), which exert predominantly inhibitory(More)
The present debate over capital controls emphasizes their potential role as tools for macroeconomic and financial stability. The effectiveness of these tools may depend on whether a country has the legal and administrative machinery to implement capital controls. This paper contributes to the analysis of the costs and benefits of capital controls by(More)