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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of adherent epithelial cells to a migratory mesenchymal state has been implicated in tumor metastasis in preclinical models. To investigate its role in human cancer, we characterized EMT in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from breast cancer patients. Rare primary tumor cells simultaneously expressed mesenchymal and(More)
RATIONALE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of key metabolic, inflammatory, and antiangiogenic pathways in type 2 diabetes (DM) and may contribute to common disease complications. OBJECTIVE In this study, we explore plasma miRNA profiles in patients with DM. METHODS AND RESULTS Total RNA was extracted from plasma(More)
Rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) present in the bloodstream of patients with cancer provide a potentially accessible source for detection, characterization, and monitoring of nonhematological cancers. We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a microfluidic device, the CTC-Chip, in capturing these epithelial cell adhesion molecule(More)
The endothelial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important both physiologically and in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular disorders. ROS generated by endothelial cells include superoxide (O2-*), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-*), nitric oxide (NO), and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals. The O2-* radical, the focus of the current(More)
RATIONALE The function of Nox4, a source of vascular H(2)O(2), is unknown. Other Nox proteins were identified as mediators of endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE We determined the function of Nox4 in situations of increased stress induced by ischemia or angiotensin II with global and tamoxifen-inducible Nox4(-/-) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Nox4 was highly(More)
In contrast to the NADPH oxidases Nox1 and Nox2, which generate superoxide (O(2)(·-)), Nox4 produces hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We constructed chimeric proteins and mutants to address the protein region that specifies which reactive oxygen species is produced. Reactive oxygen species were measured with luminol/horseradish peroxidase and Amplex Red for(More)
Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Only one moderately effective therapy exists, albeit with contraindications that exclude 90% of the patients. This medical need contrasts with a high failure rate of more than 1,000 pre-clinical drug candidates for stroke therapies. Thus, there is a need for translatable mechanisms of(More)
Owners of husiness groups are oflen accused of expropriating minority shareholders hy tunneling resources from firms where they have low cash flow rights to firms where they have high cash flow rights. In this paper we propose a general methodology to measure the extent of tunneling activities. The methodology rests on isolating and then testing the(More)
Cardiac failure occurs when the heart fails to adapt to chronic stresses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling is implicated in cardiac stress responses, but the role of different ROS sources remains unclear. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) facilitates cardiac adaptation to chronic stress. Unlike other Nox proteins, Nox4 activity is(More)
Increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and ischemia-reperfusion. Although several sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved, a family of NADPH oxidases appears to be especially important for redox(More)