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We tested the hypothesis that Crohn's disease (CD)-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable(More)
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) have been studied for more than three decades; however, their isolation has remained a challenge. We hypothesized that, just as for stem cells of other tissues, one or more membrane markers would allow positive selection of ISCs by antibody-based sorting. To explore this hypothesis, microarray data of putative ISC fractions(More)
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the intestine that has been linked to numerous susceptibility genes, including the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) M (IRGM). IRGs comprise a family of proteins known to confer resistance to intracellular infections through various mechanisms, including regulation of phagosome(More)
OBJECTIVE Although polymorphisms of the NOD2 gene predispose to the development of ileal Crohn's disease, the precise mechanisms of this increased susceptibility remain unclear. Previous work has shown that transcript expression of the Paneth cell (PC) antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) α-defensin 4 and α-defensin-related sequence 10 are selectively decreased in(More)
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) signaling are essential for regulating mucosal host defense against many invading pathogens. Commensal bacteria, especially segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), are a crucial factor that drives T helper 17 (Th17) cell development in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we demonstrate that Th17 cells(More)
The intestinal epithelium is in a constant state of renewal. The rapid turnover of cells is fed by a hierarchy of transit amplifying and stem/progenitor cells destined to give rise to the four differentiated epithelial lineages of the small intestine. Doxorubicin (Dox) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in the(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing evidence supports the central role of Paneth cells in maintaining intestinal host-microbial homeostasis. However, the direct impact of host genotype on Paneth cell function remains unclear. Here, we characterize key differences in Paneth cell function and intestinal microbial composition in two widely utilized, genetically distinct(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Dramatic advances in molecular characterization of the largely noncultivable enteric microbiota have facilitated better understanding of the composition of this complex ecosystem at broad phylogenetic levels. This review outlines current understanding of mechanisms by which commensal bacteria are controlled and shaped into functional(More)
Cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host immune system regulates host metabolism, and its dysregulation can cause metabolic disease. Here, we show that the gut microbe Akkermansia muciniphila can mediate negative effects of IFNγ on glucose tolerance. In IFNγ-deficient mice, A. muciniphila is significantly increased and restoration of IFNγ levels(More)
Dysregulated immune responses to commensal intestinal bacteria, including Escherichia coli, contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and experimental colitis. Reciprocally, E. coli responds to chronic intestinal inflammation by upregulating expression of stress response genes, including gadA and gadB. GadAB encode glutamate(More)