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In order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the gene-for-gene type of pathogen resistance, high-resolution genetic and physical mapping of resistance loci is required to facilitate map-based cloning of resistance genes. Here, we report the molecular mapping and cloning of a dominant gene (Pi-k ( h )) present in the rice line Tetep, which is(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease, usually develops as a consequence of erythropoietin deficiency. Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) is indicated for the correction of anemia associated with this condition. However, the optimal level of hemoglobin correction is not defined. METHODS In this open-label trial,(More)
NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although darbepoetin alfa can effectively increase hemoglobin levels, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients has not been adequately tested. METHODS In this study involving 4038 patients with(More)
Bacillus species continue to be dominant bacterial workhorses in microbial fermentations. Bacillus subtilis (natto) is the key microbial participant in the ongoing production of the soya-based traditional natto fermentation, and some Bacillus species are on the Food and Drug Administration's GRAS (generally regarded as safe) list. The capacity of selected(More)
One of natures most important biological processes is the degradation of lignocellulosic materials to carbon dioxide, water and humic substances. This implies possibilities to use biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry and consequently, the use of microorganisms and their enzymes to replace or supplement chemical methods is gaining interest. This(More)
Pharmacology of CFTR Chloride Channel Activity. Physiol. Rev. 79, Suppl.: S109-S144, 1999. - The pharmacology of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is at an early stage of development. Here we attempt to review the status of those compounds that modulate the Cl- channel activity of CFTR. Three classes of compounds, the sulfonylureas,(More)
The delayed rectifier potassium current plays a critical role in cellular physiology. This current (I(K)) in Drosophila larvae is believed to be a single current. However, a likely null mutation in the Shab K(+) channel gene (Shab(3)) reduces I(K) but does not eliminate it. This raises a question as to whether or not the entire I(K) passes through channels(More)
Dietary factors are known to modulate concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the present study we have investigated the possibility that insulin like growth factor-type I (IGF-I) may be an additional regulator of SHBG using cultured human hepatoma cells which secrete SHBG. The inhibitory effect of insulin on SHBG secretion by these cells(More)
We evaluated the effects of the novel benzimidazolone, 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), on Cl- secretion across T84 monolayers. 1-EBIO stimulated a sustained Cl- secretory response at a half-maximal effective concentration of 490 microM. Charybdotoxin (CTX) inhibited the 1-EBIO-induced short-circuit current (Isc) with an inhibitory constant (Ki) of 3.6(More)