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BACKGROUND CONTEXT Advancements in the philosophy of "motion preservation" have led to the use of total disc arthroplasty (TDA) as an alternative to fusion for degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the cervical spine. A commonly proposed theory is that TDA could reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease. All the published clinical studies for TDA(More)
l-Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that binds ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Cerebral endothelial cells from many species have been shown to express several forms of glutamate receptors; however, human cerebral endothelial cells have not been shown to express either the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor message or(More)
BACKGROUND Brain metastases develop in up to 50% of all patients with cancer. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the outcomes for brain metastases patients treated with adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). METHODS Between 1990 and 1995, 86 patients with brain metastases received external beam(More)
Cerebral endothelial cells in the rat, pig, and, most recently, human have been shown to express several types of receptors specific for glutamate. High levels of glutamate disrupt the cerebral endothelial barrier via activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We have previously suggested that this glutamate-induced barrier dysfunction was oxidant(More)
BACKGROUND Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a painful condition of controversial origin; however, vascular compression of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve is thought to be responsible in some cases. Recently, stereotactic radiosurgery has been established as an alternative treatment for medically intractable TN. METHODS Forty patients with(More)
Recent clinical trials indicate the efficacy of interferon (IFN)-beta 1b in reducing relapse rate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas a surge of IFN-gamma precedes and provokes acute relapses. Disruption of the cerebral endothelial barrier and transendothelial migration of inflammatory cell migration into the brain play a significant(More)
STUDY DESIGN Prospective randomized clinical trials. OBJECTIVE To compare the outcome data with respect to clinical success rates and incidence of adjacent level disease (ALD) in patients after total disc arthroplasty (TDA) or anterior cervical fusion (ACDF) for 1- and 2-level cervical disc disease. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Previously published(More)
OBJECT There are various surgical treatment alternatives for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), but there is no single scale that can be used uniformly to assess and compare one type of intervention with the others. In this study the objectives were to determine factors associated with pain control, pain-free survival, residual pain, and recurrence after gamma(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Although several publications in the last decade have proved equality in safety and efficacy of the total disc replacement (TDR) to the anterior fusion procedure in cervical spine, the claim that TDR may reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) has not been corroborated by clinical evidence. PURPOSE We attempt to predict(More)
OBJECTIVE Between April 1994 and January 1999, 39 stereotactic procedures for patients with intractable tremor were performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. A retrospective analysis of results of radiosurgical thalamotomy (n = 15), MR-guided stereotactic radiofrequency thalamotomy (n = 13), and deep brain thalamic stimulation (DBS; n = 11)(More)