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The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Bank of Finland and Federal Reserve Board. China for helpful suggestions. Tables showing some additional robustness checks are available upon request from the authors. Abstract China is reforming its banking system, partially privatizing and permitting minority(More)
BACKGROUND Animal, epidemiologic, and human clinical studies suggest a putative role for vitamin D in osteoarthritis (OA). Inadequate sunlight exposure and lower serum levels of 25(OH)D appear in some reports to be associated with an increased risk for progression of knee OA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES We asked whether treatment with vitamin D would (1) reduce(More)
JEL classification: G14 G24 G28 a b s t r a c t Short sale constraints in the aftermarket of initial public offerings (IPOs) are often used to explain short-term underpricing that is subsequently reversed. This paper shows that short selling is integral to aftermarket trading and is higher in IPOs with greater underpricing. Perceived restrictions on(More)
Funding for this publication was provided by Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. The opinions expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Department. This material may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes provided that the source is acknowledged. La présente publication est aussi(More)
OBJECTIVE Body mass index (BMI) and knee osteoarthritis have a strong association, but other anthropometric measures lack such associations. To date, no study has evaluated non-obese knee osteoarthritis to negate the systemic and metabolic effects of obesity. This study examines the validity of the contention that BMI and other anthropometric measures have(More)
Working papers of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment on research in progress. They may not have been subject to the formal editorial review accorded offi cial Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland publications. The views stated herein are those of the authors and are not(More)
This paper studies the interconnectedness of banks in the syndicated loan market as a major source of systemic risk. We develop a set of novel measures to describe the "distance" (similarity) between two banks'syndicated loan portfolios and …nd that such distance explains how banks are interconnected in this market. As lead arrangers choose to work with(More)
It is encouraging to see the much needed shift in the understanding and recognition of the concept of "burden of disease" in the context of traumatic injury. Equally important is understanding that the impact of trauma burden rivals that of nontraumatic morbidities. Subsequently, this paradigm shift reinstates the appeal for timely interventions as the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSES Discordance between clinical and radiological profiles in knee osteoarthritis has been reported. We hypothesized that the discordance could be due to limited radiological variables studied. This study essentially analyzed many more radiological features than previous studies in order to seek an association between clinical and(More)