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In adult mammalian brain, occurrence of the synthesis of estradiol from endogenous cholesterol has been doubted because of the inability to detect dehydroepiandrosterone synthase, P45017alpha. In adult male rat hippocampal formation, significant localization was demonstrated for both cytochromes P45017alpha and P450 aromatase, in pyramidal neurons in the(More)
Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by estrogen has long been a hot topic, but analysis of molecular mechanisms via synaptic estrogen receptors has been seriously difficult. Here, two types of independent synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) and spinogenesis, were investigated, in response to 17beta-estradiol and agonists of(More)
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a 30-kDa protein involved in the transport of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus plays a key role in steroid biosynthesis. To clarify the implications of this protein in neurosteroid biosynthesis, we examined the possible expression of a StAR transcript in the adult rat CNS and detected(More)
The dopamine system plays a well-established role in alcoholism. In this study, we examined the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1076560 of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene and susceptibility to alcoholism. SNP rs1076560 (C/A) is located in intron 6 of DRD2, where it is 1.4 kb downstream from alternative exon 6 and 83 bp(More)
Hypoactivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, because post-mortem brain studies revealed a decrease of the NPY in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic treatments increase the NPY in animal brains and in cerebrospinal fluid of patients. We performed genetic analysis of the NPY gene in schizophrenia.(More)
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons and granule neurons of adult male rats are equipped with a complete machinery for the synthesis of pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17beta-estradiol and testosterone as well as their sulfate esters. These brain neurosteroids are synthesized by cytochrome P450s (P450scc, P45017alpha and P450arom) from endogenous(More)
In the hippocampus, the center for learning and memory, cytochrome P450s (P450scc, P450(17alpha), and P450arom) as well as 17beta-, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and 5alpha-reductase participate in the synthesis of brain steroids from endogenous cholesterol. These brain steroids include pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone,(More)
CONTEXT Various factors are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products, including pentosidine, results from carbonyl stress, a state featuring an increase in reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs) and their attendant protein modifications. Vitamin B(6) is known to detoxify RCOs, including advanced glycation(More)
OBJECTIVES Alcohol dependence has been associated with disrupted neuroendocrine systems, impulsivity in intertemporal choice (delay discounting). However, little is known regarding stability of discount rates in alcoholics. This study examined both differential stability (stability of individual differences) and absolute stability (stability of group mean)(More)
BACKGROUND Sigma1 receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of drug abuse. Two polymorphisms (GC-241-240TT and Gln2Pro) in the sigma1 receptor gene (SIGMAR1) have been identified. To investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in conveying susceptibility to alcoholism, we performed a functional analysis of polymorphisms in the SIGMAR1 and a case-control study. (More)