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Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by estrogen has long been a hot topic, but analysis of molecular mechanisms via synaptic estrogen receptors has been seriously difficult. Here, two types of independent synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) and spinogenesis, were investigated, in response to 17beta-estradiol and agonists of(More)
In adult mammalian brain, occurrence of the synthesis of estradiol from endogenous cholesterol has been doubted because of the inability to detect dehydroepiandrosterone synthase, P45017alpha. In adult male rat hippocampal formation, significant localization was demonstrated for both cytochromes P45017alpha and P450 aromatase, in pyramidal neurons in the(More)
The dopamine system plays a well-established role in alcoholism. In this study, we examined the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1076560 of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene and susceptibility to alcoholism. SNP rs1076560 (C/A) is located in intron 6 of DRD2, where it is 1.4 kb downstream from alternative exon 6 and 83 bp(More)
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons and granule neurons of adult male rats are equipped with a complete machinery for the synthesis of pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17beta-estradiol and testosterone as well as their sulfate esters. These brain neurosteroids are synthesized by cytochrome P450s (P450scc, P45017alpha and P450arom) from endogenous(More)
Hypoactivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, because post-mortem brain studies revealed a decrease of the NPY in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic treatments increase the NPY in animal brains and in cerebrospinal fluid of patients. We performed genetic analysis of the NPY gene in schizophrenia.(More)
Previous studies have shown that Fcgamma receptor (FcR)-mediated phagocytosis and macropinocytosis in macrophages consist of two dissociable activities: a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-independent extension of phagocytic cups and a PI3K-dependent contractile mechanism that closes phagosomes and ruffles into intracellular organelles. Here, we identify an(More)
The arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix, PER-ARNT-SIM family of heterodimeric transcription factors, and serves as a dimerization partner for arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. To assess the function of ARNT in T cells, we disrupted the Arnt gene specifically in T(More)
CONTEXT Various factors are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products, including pentosidine, results from carbonyl stress, a state featuring an increase in reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs) and their attendant protein modifications. Vitamin B(6) is known to detoxify RCOs, including advanced glycation(More)
BACKGROUND Sigma1 receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of drug abuse. Two polymorphisms (GC-241-240TT and Gln2Pro) in the sigma1 receptor gene (SIGMAR1) have been identified. To investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in conveying susceptibility to alcoholism, we performed a functional analysis of polymorphisms in the SIGMAR1 and a case-control study. (More)
OBJECTIVES Alcohol dependence has been associated with disrupted neuroendocrine systems, impulsivity in intertemporal choice (delay discounting). However, little is known regarding stability of discount rates in alcoholics. This study examined both differential stability (stability of individual differences) and absolute stability (stability of group mean)(More)