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From a prospective cohort study of 1948 initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected female commercial sex workers followed between 1985 and 1999 in Dakar, Senegal, the authors compared the male to female per infectious sexual exposure transmission probability of HIV types one (HIV-1) and two (HIV-2). New non-parametric competing risks failure(More)
Neutralizing antibody responses against heterologous isolates in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infections were compared, and their relationships with established clinical markers of progression were examined. Neutralizing responses against 7 heterologous primary isolates and 1 laboratory strain were compared between 32 untreated(More)
Because of the similar virological properties of HIV types 1 and 2, HIV-2 was assumed to be as infectious and capable of inducing AIDS as HIV-1. Seroepidemiological studies have shown significant rates of HIV-2 infection in West Africa, and surveys from other regions of the world indicate that the spread of HIV-2 infection continues. However the pathogenic(More)
At least 10 different genetic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes (A-J) are responsible for the AIDS pandemic. Much of the understanding of HIV-1 disease progression derives from studies in the developed world where HIV infection is almost exclusively subtype B. This has led many to question whether the properties and consequences of HIV-1(More)
Levels of virus in the plasma are closely related to the pathogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-2 is much less pathogenic than HIV-1, and infection with HIV-2 leads to significantly lower plasma viral load. To identify the source of this difference, we measured both viral RNA and proviral DNA in matched samples from 34(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is less pathogenic than HIV type 1 (HIV-1), but the mechanisms underlying this difference have not been defined. We developed an internally controlled quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to measure HIV-2 viral load and determined levels of plasma virus in a cohort of registered commercial(More)
Twelve HIV-1-infected, nine HIV-2-infected patients and eight HIV-negative subjects were given a 40IU booster dose of tetanus toxoid (TT). Blood was collected on days 0, 7 and 30 after immunization. Changes in HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA load were evaluated by nested PCR. TT-IgG antibody levels were quantified by ELISA. CD4 cell counts as well as activation, memory(More)
OBJECTIVE Few studies have been able to track the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses in human populations over time. We analyzed the molecular evolution of subtype A over a 10-year period, in a cohort of female sex workers with a known time of infection. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS We amplified and sequenced the C2-V3 region of the surface envelope glycoprotein(More)
In West Africa, India, and certain regions of Europe, both human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) are known to cocirculate. To investigate the HIV-1 subtypes involved in dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, we sequenced the envelope C2-V3 region from 29 dually infected female commercial sex workers from Senegal. The majority of women (23(More)
Over a 20-year period we have observed the dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-2 infection in a prospective cohort of registered female sex workers (FSW) in Dakar, Senegal. Prevalence and incidence rates for HIV-1 and HIV-2 are described from 290 seroprevalent and 193 seroincident subjects who were among the 3,910 women enrolled between 1985 and 2004. We(More)