Learn More
Inflammasome-mediated IL-1beta production is central to the innate immune defects that give rise to certain autoinflammatory diseases and may also be associated with the generation of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells that mediate autoimmunity. However, the role of the inflammasome in driving adaptive immunity to infection has not been addressed. In(More)
In this study we have identified members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (namely, TLRs 4, 6, 8, and 9) as proteins to which the intracellular protein tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), binds. Detailed analysis of the interaction between Btk and TLR8 demonstrates that the presence of both Box 2 and 3 motifs in the Toll/interleukin-1(More)
The Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain is a region found in the cytoplasmic tails of members of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. The domain is essential for signaling and is also found in the adaptor proteins Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like) and MyD88, which function to couple activation of the receptor to downstream signaling(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) lies at the center of the inflammatory response. This pro-inflammatory cytokine was first pinned down for its ability to induce fever, and was later assigned additional biological functions including neutrophil recruitment, lymphocyte activation and induction of inflammatory mediators 1. Excessive production of IL-1β drives the(More)
The recognition of pathogen-derived molecules by the innate immune system is mediated by a number of receptors, including members of the TLR (Toll-like receptor), RLH [RIG (retinoic acid-inducible gene)-like helicase] and the NLR (NOD-like receptor) families. NLRs in particular are also involved in the recognition of host-derived 'danger'-associated(More)
The detection of nucleic acids by the innate immune system is an essential host response during viral infection. In recent years, a number of immune sensors capable of recognizing cytosolic DNA have been identified and include the PYHIN family members AIM2, IFI16, and p204 as well as the enzyme, cGAS. Activation of these receptors leads to the induction of(More)
The effect of pH on the initial-rate kinetic behaviour of BVR-A (biliverdin-IXalpha reductase) exhibits an alkaline optimum with NADPH as cofactor, but a neutral optimum with NADH as cofactor. This has been described as dual cofactor and dual pH dependent behaviour; however, no mechanism has been described to explain this phenomenon. We present evidence(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating joint disorder of particularly high prevalence in the elderly population. Intra-articular basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are present in the majority of OA joints and are associated with severe degeneration. They are known to activate macrophages, synovial fibroblasts, and articular(More)
TLR4 interactor with leucine-rich repeats (TRIL) is a brain-enriched accessory protein that is important in TLR3 and TLR4 signaling. In this study, we generated Tril(-/-) mice and examined TLR responses in vitro and in vivo. We found a role for TRIL in both TLR4 and TLR3 signaling in mixed glial cells, consistent with the high level of expression of TRIL in(More)
  • Chiea C Khor, Stephen J Chapman, +31 authors Adrian V S Hill
  • 2007
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens 1–3. The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4–6). We report a case-control study of 6,106 individuals from(More)
  • 1