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Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is an important inflammatory mediator of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein that forms amyloid deposits in the pancreas during type 2 diabetes, triggered the NLRP3 inflammasome and generated mature IL-1β. One therapy for type 2 diabetes, glyburide, suppressed IAPP-mediated IL-1β(More)
The Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, defined by the presence of an intracellular TIR domain, initiates innate immunity through activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. ST2 is a member of the TIR family that does not activate NF-kappa B and has been suggested as an important(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immune responses to infection. Binding of agonists to TLRs promotes maturation of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, which in turn directs the induction of adaptive immune responses. For this reason TLR agonists are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants for infectious disease or cancer(More)
It is now well established that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as primary sensors of microbial compounds. Details of the molecular mechanisms governing TLR responses are emerging steadily and our understanding of the signaling pathways activated these receptors has improved greatly over the last few years. Differences in adaptor usage, cellular localisation(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and members of their signaling pathway are important in the initiation of the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The adaptor protein Mal (also known as TIRAP), encoded by TIRAP (MIM 606252), mediates downstream signaling of TLR2 and TLR4 (refs. 4-6). We report a case-control study of 6,106 individuals from the(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4 are important proteins in innate immunity, recognizing microbial products and eliciting host defense responses. Both use the adapter proteins MyD88 and MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) to activate signaling pathways. Here we report that Mal but not MyD88 interacts with caspase-1, the enzyme that processes the precursors of the(More)
Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are essential players in activating the host innate immune response against infectious microorganisms. All TLRs signal through Toll/interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter proteins. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is one such adapter that specifically is involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. When overexpressed(More)
The Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain is a region found in the cytoplasmic tails of members of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. The domain is essential for signaling and is also found in the adaptor proteins Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like) and MyD88, which function to couple activation of the receptor to downstream signaling(More)
Inflammasome-mediated IL-1beta production is central to the innate immune defects that give rise to certain autoinflammatory diseases and may also be associated with the generation of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells that mediate autoimmunity. However, the role of the inflammasome in driving adaptive immunity to infection has not been addressed. In(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) lies at the center of the inflammatory response. This pro-inflammatory cytokine was first pinned down for its ability to induce fever, and was later assigned additional biological functions including neutrophil recruitment, lymphocyte activation and induction of inflammatory mediators 1. Excessive production of IL-1β drives the(More)