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The circulation of H9N2 viruses throughout the world, along with their expanded host range, poses a potential health risk to the public, but the host responses to H9N2 virus in mammals were little known. To obtain insight into the host immune responses to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of both cytokines and chemokines in the lungs of infected mice(More)
The aim of this study was to establish a method for discriminating Dendrobium officinale from four of its close relatives Dendrobiumchrysanthum, Dendrobium crystallinum, Dendrobium aphyllum and Dendrobium devonianum based on chemical composition analysis. We analyzed 62 samples of 24 Dendrobium species. High performance liquid chromatography analysis(More)
The worldwide circulation of H9N2 avian influenza virus in poultry, the greater than 2.3 % positive rate for anti-H9 antibodies in poultry-exposed workers, and several reports of human infection indicate that H9N2 virus is a potential threat to human health. Here, we found three mutations that conferred high virulence to H9N2 virus in mice after four(More)
H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an(More)
BACKGROUND Polyporus umbellatus is an important medicinal fungus distributed throughout most area of China. Its wide distribution may have resulted in substantial intraspecific genetic diversity for the fungus, potentially creating variation in its medical value. To date, we know little about the intraspecific genetic diversity of P. umbellatus. (More)
Cases of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry are increasing throughout many Eurasian countries, and co-infections with other pathogens have resulted in high morbidity and mortality in poultry. Few studies have investigated the genetic factors of virus airborne transmission which determine the scope of this epidemic. In this study, we used(More)
(2016). Effects of mycorrhizal fungus Mycena sp. on the growth and polysaccharide properties of Dendrobium officinale. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Orchidaceae), an endangered species, is a medicinal plant and the sole origin plant of Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis (Tiepishihu), a rare Chinese herbal medicine. Several photosynthetic orchids have(More)
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