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Human infectious diseases have been studied in pigs because the two species have common microbial, parasitic, and zoonotic organisms, but there has been no systematic evaluation of cytokine gene expression in response to infectious agents in porcine species. In this study, pigs were inoculated with two clinically and economically important parasites,(More)
IL-4 and IL-13 promote gastrointestinal worm expulsion in part through effects on nonlymphoid cells, such as intestinal smooth muscle cells. The roles of Stat6 in IL-4-, IL-13-, and parasitic nematode-induced effects on small intestinal smooth muscle contractility were investigated in BALB/c wild-type and Stat6-deficient mice treated with a long-lasting(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Enteric nematode infection induces a strong type 2 T helper cell (Th2) cytokine response characterized by increased infiltration of various immune cells, including macrophages. The role of these immune cells in host defense against nematode infection remains poorly defined. The present study investigated the role of macrophages and the(More)
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) has emerged recently as a common underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. The characterization of zonulin, the only physiological mediator known to regulate IP reversibly, has remained elusive. Through proteomic analysis of human sera, we have now identified human(More)
The intestinal epithelium serves as a major protective barrier between the mammalian host and the external environment. Here we show that the transmembrane serine protease matriptase plays a pivotol role in the formation and integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. St14 hypomorphic mice, which have a 100-fold reduction in intestinal matriptase mRNA(More)
Recent studies showed that enteric helminth infection improved symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease as well as in experimental models of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of the protective effect of helminth infection on colitis-induced changes in immune and epithelial cell function. BALB/c mice received an oral(More)
Endotoxin tolerance is a complex phenomenon characterized primarily by decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory mediators, whereas the expression of other genes are induced or unchanged. Endotoxin tolerance is induced by prior exposure of murine macrophages/human monocytes, experimental animals, or people to TLR(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Enteric nematode infection induces a smooth muscle hypercontractility that depends on interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6. Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the physiologic regulation of gut function. The present study investigated the contribution of 5-HT and its receptors(More)
Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33,(More)
Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes exerts profound effects on both the immune and physiological responses of the host. We showed previously that the Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, induce STAT6-dependent changes in intestinal epithelial cell permeability, absorption, and secretion that are similar to those observed in a secondary infection with(More)