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BACKGROUND Ear infections are a common cause of illness during the first two years of life. New conjugate vaccines may be able to prevent a substantial portion of cases of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS We enrolled 1662 infants in a randomized, double-blind efficacy trial of a heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide(More)
PURPOSE To define the interrelationship between cost-of-illness, quality of life (QoL) and Parkinson's disease (PD) severity in a common patient management setting in Finland.Scope. Two hundred and sixty consecutive outpatients with idiopathic PD participated. UPDRS, motor fluctuations, QoL, and the use of health care resources were measured. Direct and(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the epidemiologic characteristics of invasive infections in children caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae to provide background data for vaccination programs. DESIGN A nationwide laboratory-based prospective surveillance of all invasive pneumococcal infections in children during 1985 through 1989. SETTING A network of all microbiologic(More)
BACKGROUND Timely information on the bacteriology of primary, noncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM) may today be needed more than ever, because of the increasing antimicrobial resistance of its major bacterial causes and because of the potential of new pneumococcal and other bacterial vaccines for prevention of AOM. METHODS The study followed 329(More)
BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae type b is the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in young children. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine does not protect children at greatest risk (those under the age of 18 months), but a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine has proved to be more immunogenic in this age group. METHODS We enrolled 114,000(More)
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), and pneumolysin (Ply) are common to virtually all Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. They are immunogenic and protective against pneumococcal challenge in animals and are the major candidates for a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine for humans. However, little is known of the(More)
The oropharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was studied among 725 healthy 3-year-old children who had or had not been immunized with an Hib conjugate vaccine. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected during the childrens' well-child visit to their local child health center. Fourteen (3.5%) of the 398 unvaccinated children were oropharyngeal(More)
OBJECTIVE To study risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease among children. DESIGN A population-based, case-control study of 149 cases and 284 controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. SETTING Finland, November 1986 through November 1989. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS Patients were identified from a prospective nationwide surveillance for(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare two Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) conjugate vaccines, a polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate (PRP-D) vaccine and an oligosaccharide-CRM197 protein conjugate (HBOC [PRP-CRM]) vaccine, in the same population. DESIGN One hundred twenty-five thousand infants were randomized to receive the PRP-D or HBOC vaccine. Primary(More)
The importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b as the main cause of serious bacteremic infections in young children and the consequent need for preventive measures have been widely appreciated since the 1970s. The knowledge that serum antibodies to the polysaccharide capsule of H influenzae type b increase with age and correlate with resistance to this(More)