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Using two languages on an everyday basis appears to have a positive effect on general-purpose executive control in bilinguals. However, the neural correlates of this effect remain poorly understood. To investigate the brain bases of the bilingual advantage in executive control, we tested 21 Spanish monolinguals and 19 Spanish-Catalan early bilinguals in a(More)
Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were(More)
The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals using(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in(More)
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been(More)
The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) relates individual differences in reward sensitivity to the activation of the behavioral approach system (BAS). Dopamine-related brain structures have been repeatedly associated with reward processing, but also with cognitive processes such as task switching. In the present study, we examined the association(More)
We tested the hypothesis that early bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals when performing non-linguistic executive control tasks. We do so by exploring the brain activity of early bilinguals and monolinguals in a task-switching paradigm using an embedded critical trial design. Crucially, the task was designed such that the(More)
Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate(More)
We have conducted an fMRI research using virtual reality to study the level of presence that subjects experience during the navigation through a virtual environment, in comparison with the presence felt during a video or a photograph viewing task. The fMRI results have not been analyzed yet, but responses to presence questionnaires have been analyzed.(More)
Up to now, still images or videos of real animals have been used in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) protocols to evaluate brain activations associated to small animals' phobia. Our aim in the present work is to evaluate the use of virtual environments in this context, which will have the added benefit of allowing the subject to move and(More)