Ainārs Stepens

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BACKGROUND A distinctive extrapyramidal syndrome has been observed in intravenous methcathinone (ephedrone) users in Eastern Europe and Russia. METHODS We studied 23 adults in Latvia who had extrapyramidal symptoms and who had injected methcathinone for a mean (+/-SD) of 6.7+/-5.1 years. The methcathinone was manufactured under home conditions by(More)
We examined white matter abnormalities in patients with a distinctive extrapyramidal syndrome due to intravenous methcathinone (ephedrone) abuse. We performed diffusion tensor imaging in 10 patients and 15 age-matched controls to assess white matter structure across the whole brain. Diffuse significant decreases in white matter fractional anisotropy, a(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is limited knowledge regarding the long-term outcome of the methcathinone/manganese-induced movement disorder. Our purpose was to define prognosis in intravenous methcathinone abusers affected by this distinctive disorder attributed to manganese (Mn) toxicity. Also, neuropathology from a globus pallidus region biopsy from a(More)
Objectives To determine the validity and reliability of a Latvian version of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (LV-NIHSS) for evaluating Latvian stroke patients. Methods The adaption of the LV-NIHSS followed standard methods used for the adaption and validation of clinical assessment tools. The scale validity was tested by comparison with the(More)
BACKGROUND A permanent Parkinsonian syndrome occurs in intravenous abusers of the designer psychostimulant methcathinone (ephedrone). It is attributed to deposition of contaminant manganese, as reflected by characteristic globus pallidus hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI. METHODS We have investigated brain structure and function in methcathinone abusers(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dystonia is difficult to recognize due to its large phenomenological complexity. Thus, the use of experts in dystonia is essential for better recognition and management of dystonia syndromes (DS). Our aim was to document managing strategies, facilities and expertise available in various European countries in order to identify which(More)
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