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A new method is developed for the determination of acrylamide in starch-based foods. The method included the extraction of acrylamide with water, defatting with hexane, derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) and potassium bromide (KBr), liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-hexane (4:1), and concentration. The final analyte(More)
Recent advances in analytical methodologies have made it possible to bring metabolomic profiling into quantitative metabolomics that permits precise measurements of comprehensive small-molecule profiles. Modern liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode serves as the foundation for accurate(More)
Gemfibrozil, a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), is one of the most widely prescribed anti-dyslipidemia fibrate drugs. Among the adverse reactions observed with gemfibrozil are alterations in liver function, cholestatic jaundice, and cholelithiasis. However, the mechanisms underlying these toxicities are poorly understood. In(More)
Memory deficit is a marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that has been highly associated with the dysfunction of cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling and an ongoing inflammatory process. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors prevent the breakdown of cGMP and are currently studied as a possible target for cognitive enhancement. However, it is still unknown whether(More)
BACKGROUND VGF (nonacryonimic) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT (also known as protein kinase B, PKB)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling play pivotal roles in depression. However, whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling-mediated VGF participates in rapid-acting antidepressant-like actions of GLYX-13 is unclear. (More)
Fibrates are a group of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists used in the treatment of dyslipidemia; however, they have been reported to cause species-related hepatocarcinogenesis and clinical myotoxicity. Gemfibrozil is one of the most commonly used fibrates, and it shows the highest risk for myotoxicity among the fibrates. The inhibitory(More)
Fibrate drugs are PPARalpha agonists prescribed for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Severe myotoxicity has been reportedly associated with their use albeit at a low frequency, especially for gemfibrozil. Few studies have investigated the mechanism of fibrate-induced myotoxicity in vivo. Considering the apparent species-related differences in PPARalpha(More)
Phenotypic modifications of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to pathological changes in atherosclerosis where modulation of intracellular calcium plays an important role. In this study, three fibrate drugs, namely gemfibrozil (Gem), fenofibric acid (Fa) and bezafibrate (Beza), were revealed to relax thoracic aorta associated with their(More)
Gemfibrozil is the most myotoxic fibrate drug commonly used for dyslipidemia, but the mechanism is poorly understood. The current study revealed that gemfibrozil inhibits myoblast differentiation through the regulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) as revealed in L6 myoblasts by use of laser scan confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using Fluo-4 AM(More)
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) can cause acute liver injury that is sometimes fatal, requiring efficient pharmacological intervention. The traditional Chinese herb Bupleurum falcatum has been widely used for the treatment of several liver diseases in eastern Asian countries, and saikosaponin d (SSd) is one of its major pharmacologically-active components.(More)