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Bilateral injection of naloxone (3.0-30.0 nmol) into the substantia nigra of morphine-dependent rats produced a withdrawal syndrome consisting of wet-dog shakes, teeth chattering, irritability to touch, diarrhea and hypothermia. Intense wet-dog shakes and grooming were observed after intranigral injection of the mu selective antagonist(More)
Vibrio cholerae causes the severe diarrhoeal disease cholera. A cascade of regulators controls expression of virulence determinants in V. cholerae at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. ToxT is the direct transcription activator of the major virulence genes in V. cholerae. Here we describe TarA, a highly conserved, small regulatory RNA,(More)
Invasive infection often begins with asymptomatic colonization of mucosal surfaces. A murine model of bacterial colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was used to study the mechanism for mucosal protection by immunoglobulin. In previously colonized immune mice, bacteria were rapidly sequestered within large aggregates in the nasal lumen. To further(More)
While the importance of transmission of pathogens is widely accepted, there is currently little mechanistic understanding of this process. Nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is common in humans, especially in early childhood, and is a prerequisite for the development of disease and transmission among hosts. In this study, we(More)
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