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The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine stress response system. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (pPVN) play a key role in coordinating responses of this system to stressors. The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), mimicking infection, robustly activates these CRH(More)
We describe melphalan pharmacokinetics in 26 patients treated by isolated limb perfusion (ILP). Group A (n = 11) were treated with a bolus of melphalan (1.5 mg kg-1), and in a phase I study the dose was increased to 1.75 mg kg-1. The higher dose was given as a bolus to Group B (n = 9), and by divided dose to Group C (n = 6). Using high performance liquid(More)
OBJECTIVES Chronic diseases are fast becoming the largest health burden in India. Despite this, their management in India has not been well studied. We aimed to systematically review the nature and efficacy of current management strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India. METHODS We used database searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE,(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes and its complications in the Co-operation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) region. DESIGN Systematic review. SETTING Co-operation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait). PARTICIPANTS Residents of(More)
AIMS The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC), and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing, worldwide public health concern. Recent growth has been particularly dramatic in the states of The Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC), and these and other developing economies are at particular risk. We aimed to systematically review the quality of control of type 2 diabetes in the GCC, and the(More)
We report our experience with the technique of lymphatic mapping using patent blue V dye in patients with limb malignant melanoma. The technique is based on the hypothesis that embolic metastases occur along lymphatic channels to a 'sentinel' lymph node: the draining lymph node nearest the site of the primary malignant melanoma. Patent blue V dye (0.5-1.0(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited. AIM To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India. METHODS Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and(More)
Of 50 patients with a perforated duodenal ulcer treated with simple suture closure, 36 (72%) had symptoms before the perforation for a mean period of 9.9 years. 24 of the 36 (66.6%) acquired further symptoms or complications at 1--48 months (mean 11 months) after the operation, whereas only 2 of the 14 patients (14%) who were symptom-free preoperatively had(More)
BACKGROUND Data on use and health benefits of active travel in rural low- and middle- income country settings are sparse. We aimed to examine correlates of active travel, and its association with adiposity, in rural India and Bangladesh. METHODS Cross sectional study of 2,122 adults (≥18 years) sampled in 2011-13 from two rural sites in India (Goa and(More)