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The present work was carried out to investigate the role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors in nocturnal thirst and sodium appetite induced by classical models of osmotic and sodium depletion challenges in ovariectomized rats chronically treated with oil or oestradiol benzoate (EB, 20 microg per animal, s.c. daily). In both conditions, the animals(More)
Previous studies revealed a significant production of inflammatory cytokines together with severe thymic atrophy and thymocyte migratory disturbances during experimental Chagas disease. Migratory activity of thymocytes and mature T cells seem to be finely tuned by cytokines, chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Systemic TNF-α is enhanced(More)
Disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. During the acute phase of this disease, increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) correlate with thymic atrophy. Recently, we demonstrated that this phenomenon is paralleled by a decrease of prolactin (PRL) secretion, another(More)
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is able to target the thymus and induce alterations of the thymic microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments. Acute infection results in severe atrophy of the organ and early release of immature thymocytes into the periphery. To date, the pathophysiological effects of thymic changes promoted by parasite-inducing(More)
We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic(More)
OBJECTIVE Considering the controversial data regarding the role of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the thirst and sodium appetite in ovariectomised rats, we aimed to evaluate the role of the brain angiotensin II (Ang II) AT1-receptor on the nocturnal fluids intake. MATERIALS AND METHODS Groups of Wistar female rats were ovariectomised and(More)
The physiology of the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ in which T cells are generated, is controlled by hormones. Data from animal models indicate that several peptide and nonpeptide hormones act pleiotropically within the thymus to modulate the proliferation, differentiation, migration and death by apoptosis of developing thymocytes. For example, growth(More)
The present study was carried out to assess the influence of noradrenergic stimulation of the midbrain dorsal (DRN) and median raphe nuclei (MRN) on urinary volume and electrolyte excretion in hydrated rats. Wistar rats were implanted with a guide cannula into the MRN or DRN and then submitted to two intragastric administrations of water in order to attain(More)
The thymus supports differentiation of T cell precursors. This process requires relocation of developing thymocytes throughout multiple microenvironments of the organ, mainly with thymic epithelial cells (TEC), which control intrathymic T cell differentiation influencing the formation and maintenance of the immunological synapse. In addition to the proteins(More)
The thymus is primarily responsible for T cell production. However, it begins to recede in size and function, from early in life. This decreased generation of naive T cells during normal thymus ageing, or linked with pathology (i.e. chronic inflammation), leads to reduced T cell specificities, peripheral T cell imbalances, and higher susceptibilities to(More)